community rating system
(8) (A) The term “community rating system” means the systems, described in subparagraphs (B) and (C), of fixing rates of payments for health services. A health maintenance organization may fix its rates of payments under the system described in subparagraph (B) or (C) or under both such systems, but a health maintenance organization may use only one such system for fixing its rates of payments for any one group. (B) A system of fixing rates of payment for health services may provide that the rates shall be fixed on a per-person or per-family basis and may authorize the rates to vary with the number of persons in a family, but, except as authorized in subparagraph (D), such rates must be equivalent for all individuals and for all families of similar composition. (C) A system of fixing rates of payment for health services may provide that the rates shall be fixed for individuals and families by groups. Except as authorized in subparagraph (D), such rates must be equivalent for all individuals in the same group and for all families of similar composition in the same group. If a health maintenance organization is to fix rates of payment for individuals and families by groups, it shall— (i) (I) classify all of the members of the organization into classes based on factors which the health maintenance organization determines predict the differences in the use of health services by the individuals or families in each class and which have not been disapproved by the Secretary, (II) determine its revenue requirements for providing services to the members of each class established under subclause (I), and (III) fix the rates of payments for the individuals and families of a group on the basis of a composite of the organization’s revenue requirements determined under subclause (II) for providing services to them as members of the classes established under subclause (I), or (ii) fix the rates of payments for the individuals and families of a group on the basis of the organization’s revenue requirements for providing services to the group, except that the rates of payments for the individuals and families of a group of less than 100 persons may not be fixed at rates greater than 110 percent of the rate that would be fixed for such individuals and families under subparagraph (B) or clause (i) of this subparagraph. The Secretary shall review the factors used by each health maintenance organization to establish classes under clause (i). If the Secretary determines that any such factor may not reasonably be used to predict the use of the health services by individuals and families, the Secretary shall disapprove such factor for such purpose. If a health maintenance organization is to fix rates of payment for a group under clause (ii), it shall, upon request of the entity with which it contracts to provide services to such group, disclose to that entity the method and data used in calculating the rates of payment. (D) The following differentials in rates of payments may be established under the systems described in subparagraphs (B) and (C): (i) Nominal differentials in such rates may be established to reflect differences in marketing costs and the different administrative costs of collecting payments from the following categories of members: (I) Individual members (including their families). (II) Small groups of members (as determined under regulations of the Secretary). (III) Large groups of members (as determined under regulations of the Secretary). (ii) Nominal differentials in such rates may be established to reflect the compositing of the rates of payment in a systematic manner to accommodate group purchasing practices of the various employers. (iii) Differentials in such rates may be established for members enrolled in a health maintenance organization pursuant to a contract with a governmental authority under section 1079 or 1086 of title 10 or under any other governmental program (other than the health benefits program authorized by chapter 89 of title 5) or any health benefits program for employees of States, political subdivision of States, and other public entities.