The term “employee” (except when used in phrases establishing a different meaning) means any individual who is or has been (i) in the service of one or more employers for compensation, or (ii) an employee representative. The term “employee” shall include an employee of a local lodge or division defined as an employer in subsection (a) only if he was in the service of a carrier on or after August 29, 1935 . The term “employee” includes an officer of an employer. The term “employee” shall not include any individual while such individual is engaged in the physical operations consisting of the mining of coal, the preparation of coal, the handling (other than movement by rail with standard railroad locomotives) of coal not beyond the mine tipple, or the loading of coal at the tipple.


45 USC § 351(d)

Scoping language

For the purposes of this chapter
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