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End-of-life notice: American Legal Ethics Library

As of March 1, 2013, the Legal Information Institute is no longer maintaining the information in the American Legal Ethics Library. It is no longer possible for us to maintain it at a level of completeness and accuracy given its staffing needs. It is very possible that we will revive it at a future time. At this point, it is in need of a complete technological renovation and reworking of the "correspondent firm" model which successfully sustained it for many years.

Many people have contributed time and effort to the project over the years, and we would like to thank them. In particular, Roger Cramton and Peter Martin not only conceived ALEL but gave much of their own labor to it. We are also grateful to Brad Wendel for his editorial contributions, to Brian Toohey and all at Jones Day for their efforts, and to all of our correspondents and contributors. Thank you.

We regret any inconvenience.

Some portions of the collection may already be severely out of date, so please be cautious in your use of this material.

American Legal Ethics Library - Copyright and Conditions

The Full Library

Copyright in the full American Legal Ethics Library is held by Cornell University. The compilation of commentary and primary material gathered at this site by the editors of the LII is protected by copyright, with the copyright held by Cornell University.

Distribution of these pages on the Internet does not constitute consent to any use of this material for commercial redistribution either via the Internet or using some other form of hypertext distribution. Links to the library or individual pages in it are welcome.

Questions about redistribution of the library should be directed to: Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, Myron Taylor Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, E-mail:

Individual Narratives

Copyright in each individual jurisdictional narrative is held by its institutional author(s).

Primary Materials Compiled, Reformatted and Linked within the Library by the LII

The text of the professional rules of a state, being a government document, lies in the public domain and may be freely copied and retransmitted. Copyright in the underlying hypertext files which implement the special features of this integrated library is held by Cornell University. Distribution of this version on the Internet, does not constitute consent to any use of the underlying hypertext markup for commercial redistribution either via the Internet or using some other form of hypertext distribution.

The Materials to Which These Pages Link

The ethics materials from other Internet sites integrated within the library are maintained by diverse other institutions. Their use is, therefore, subject only to such conditions as those institutions set.

Conditions of Use

The summaries of the law of lawyering of individual jurisdictions contained in this library and the library in its entirety are transmitted for informational purposes only and not for legal advice. Users should not act upon this information without seeking the professional advice of a lawyer in the applicable jurisdiction. An effort has been made to provide useful information, but the information is not necessarily complete, may be inaccurate, and may not reflect current legal developments. Neither the LII nor the narrative authors warrant that the information is complete or accurate. They disclaim all liability to any person for any loss caused by errors or omissions in this collection of information.