# Ala. Admin. Code r. 290-3-3-.07.02 - Middle-Level Mathematics (Grades 4-8)

(1)

**Rationale.**The middle-level Mathematics program prepares teachers to use the*Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics*and other guides to provide instruction in mathematics. The standards build upon the Alabama Core Teaching Standards and are guided by tenets of the Association for Middle Level Education.(2)

**Program Curriculum.**In addition to meeting Rules 290-3-3-.02(6) (a)1. -4., 290-3-3-.02(6) (e) 1. and 2 . (i) - (iii), 290-3-3-.03, 290-3-3-.04, and 290-3-3-.07(1) (a)1. and (2), the program shall prepare prospective middle-level mathematics teachers who demonstrate knowledge of the number system, expressions and equations, geometry, measurement and data, proportional relationships, and statistics and probability.(a)

**Number System.**Prior to program completion, prospective teachers demonstrate knowledge of:1. How to develop fluency with efficient
procedures for operations on the real number system.

2. How to create models for operations of the
real number system.

3. Operations
and properties of the real number system to solve problems.

4. How to develop and use the meaning of unit
fractions in the operations of fractions.

5. Relationships among fractions, decimals,
and percent.

6. How to solve
application problems with fractions, decimals, percentages, and
proportions.

7. Numbers that are
not rational, and how to approximate them by rational numbers.

8. How to use basic concepts of number theory
(e.g., divisibility, prime factorization, multiples) to solve
problems.

9. A variety of
strategies to determine the reasonableness of results.

(b)

**Expressions and Equations.**Prior to program completion, prospective teachers demonstrate ability to:1. Reason about and solve one-variable
equations and inequalities.

2.
Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and
independent variables.

3. Use
properties of operation to general equivalent expressions.

4. Solve real-life mathematical problems
using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

5. Work with radicals and integer
exponents.

6. Understand the
connections among proportional relationships, lines, and linear
equations.

7. Analyze and solve
linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

8. Define, evaluate, and compare
functions.

9. Use functions to
model relationships between quantities.

(c)

**Geometry.**Prior to program completion, prospective teachers demonstrate ability to:1. Graph points on the coordinate plane to
solve real-world and mathematical problems.

2. Draw and identify lines and angles, and
classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

3. Draw, construct, and describe geometrical
figures and describe the relationships among them.

4. Understand congruence and similarity using
physical models, transparencies, and/or geometry software.

5. Understand and apply the Pythagorean
Theorem.

(d)

**Measurement and Data.**Prior to program completion, prospective teachers demonstrate ability to:1. Represent
and interpret data.

2. Solve
real-world and mathematical problems involving measurements (e.g., angle, area,
surface area, and volume, including cylinders, cones, and spheres).

3. Convert units within a given measurement
system.

(e)

**Proportional Relationships.**Prior to program completion, prospective teachers demonstrate ability to:1. Develop ratio concepts and reasoning to
solve problems.

2. Analyze
proportional relationships and use that ability to solve real-world and
mathematical problems.

(f)

**Statistics and Probability.**Prior to program completion, prospective teachers demonstrate ability to:1. Understand statistical
variability.

2. Summarize and
describe distributions.

3. Use
random sampling to draw inferences about a population.

4. Draw informal comparative inferences about
two populations.

5. Investigate
chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.

6. Investigate patterns of association in
bivariate data.

(g)

**Mathematics Instruction.**Prior to program completion, prospective teachers demonstrate ability to use the*Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics*and other guides to provide research-based instruction so that students are able to:1. Make sense of
problems and persevere in solving them.

2. Reason abstractly and
quantitatively.

3. Construct viable
arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

4. Model with mathematics.

5. Use appropriate tools
strategically.

6. Attend to
precision.

7. Look for and make use
of structure.

8. Look for and
express regularity in repeated reasoning.

## Notes

**Author:** Dr. Eric G. Mackey

**Statutory Authority:**
Code of Ala.
1975, ยงยง
16-3-16,
16-23-14.

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