Iowa Admin. Code r. 441-78.46 - Physical disability waiver service

Payment shall be approved for the following services to members eligible for the HCBS physical disability waiver as established in 441-Chapter 83 and as identified in the member's service plan. Effective March 17, 2022, payment shall only be made for services provided in integrated, community-based settings that support full access of members receiving Medicaid HCBS to the greater community, including opportunities to seek employment and work in competitive integrated settings, engage in community life, control personal resources, and receive services in the community, to the same degree of access as individuals not receiving Medicaid HCBS.

(1) Consumer-directed attendant care service. Consumer-directed attendant care services are service activities performed by a person to help a member with self-care tasks which the member would typically do independently if the member were otherwise able. Covered service activities are limited to the nonskilled activities listed in paragraph 78.46(1)"f" and the skilled activities listed in paragraph 78.46(1)"g." Covered service activities must be essential to the health, safety, and welfare of the member. Services may be provided in the absence of a parent or guardian if the parent or guardian has given advance direction for the service provision.
a. Service planning.
(1) The member, parent, guardian, or attorney in fact under a durable power of attorney for health care shall:
1. Select the individual or agency that will provide the components of the attendant care services.
2. Determine with the selected provider what components of attendant care services the provider shall perform, subject to confirmation by the service worker or case manager that those components are consistent with the assessment and are authorized covered services.
3. Complete, sign, and date Form 470-3372, HCBS Consumer-Directed Attendant Care Agreement, to indicate the frequency, scope, and duration of services (a description of each service component and the time agreed on for that component). The case manager or service worker and provider shall also sign the agreement.
4. Submit the completed agreement to the service worker or case manager. The agreement shall be part of the member's service plan and shall be kept in the member's records, in the provider's records, and in the service worker's or case manager's records. Any service component that is not listed in the agreement shall not be payable.
(2) Whenever a legal representative acts as a provider of consumer-directed attendant care as allowed by 441-paragraph 79.9(7)"b," the following shall apply:
1. The payment rate for the legal representative must be based on the skill level of the legal representative and may not exceed the median statewide reimbursement rate for the service unless the higher rate receives prior approval from the department;
2. The legal representative may not be paid for more than 40 hours of service per week; and
3. A contingency plan must be established in the member's service plan to ensure service delivery in the event the legal representative is unable to provide services due to illness or other unexpected event.
b. Supervision of skilled services. Skilled consumer-directed attendant care services shall be provided under the supervision of a licensed nurse or licensed therapist working under the direction of a physician. The licensed nurse or therapist shall:
(1) Retain accountability for actions that are delegated.
(2) Ensure appropriate assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
(3) Make on-site supervisory visits every two weeks with the service provider present.
c. Service documentation. The consumer-directed attendant care provider shall document evidence of compliance with the requirements of this chapter and rule 441-79.3 (249A). The documentation or copies of the documentation must be maintained or be electronically accessible by the consumer-directed attendant care provider. Providers must use an electronic visit verification system that captures all documentation requirements of the Consumer-Directed Attendant Care (CDAC) Service Record (Form 470-4389) or use Form 470-4389. Any service component that is not documented in accordance with rule 441-79.3 (249A) shall not be payable.
d. Role of guardian or attorney. If the member has a guardian or attorney in fact under a durable power of attorney for health care:
(1) The service worker's or case manager's service plan shall address how consumer-directed attendant care services will be monitored to ensure that the member's needs are being adequately met. If the guardian or attorney in fact is the service provider, the service plan shall address how the service worker or case manager shall oversee service provision.
(2) The guardian or attorney in fact shall sign the claim form in place of the member, indicating that the service has been provided as presented on the claim.
e. Service units and billing. A unit of service is 15 minutes provided by an individual or agency. Each service shall be billed in whole units.
f. Nonskilled services. Covered nonskilled service activities are limited to help with the following activities:
(1) Dressing.
(2) Bathing, shampooing, hygiene, and grooming.
(3) Access to and from bed or a wheelchair, transferring, ambulation, and mobility in general.
(4) Toileting, including bowel, bladder, and catheter assistance (emptying the catheter bag, collecting a specimen, and cleaning the external area around the catheter).
(5) Meal preparation, cooking, and assistance with feeding, not including the cost of meals themselves. Meal preparation and cooking shall be provided only in the member's home.
(6) Housekeeping, laundry, and shopping essential to the member's health care at home.
(7) Taking medications ordinarily self-administered, including those ordered by a physician or other qualified health care provider.
(8) Minor wound care.
(9) Going to or returning from a place of employment and job-related tasks while the member is on the job site. Transportation for the member and assistance with understanding or performing the essential job functions are not included in consumer-directed attendant care services.
(10) Tasks, such as financial management and scheduling, that require cognitive or physical assistance.
(11) Communication essential to the health and welfare of the member, through interpreting and reading services and use of assistive devices for communication.
(12) Using transportation essential to the health and welfare of the member. The cost of the transportation is not included.
g. Skilled services. Covered skilled service activities are limited to help with the following activities:
(1) Tube feedings of members unable to eat solid foods.
(2) Intravenous therapy administered by a registered nurse.
(3) Parenteral injections required more than once a week.
(4) Catheterizations, continuing care of indwelling catheters with supervision of irrigations, and changing of Foley catheters when required.
(5) Respiratory care including inhalation therapy and tracheotomy care or tracheotomy care and ventilator.
(6) Care of decubiti and other ulcerated areas, noting and reporting to the nurse or therapist.
(7) Rehabilitation services including, but not limited to, bowel and bladder training, range of motion exercises, ambulation training, restorative nursing services, respiratory care and breathing programs, reality orientation, reminiscing therapy, remotivation, behavior modification, and reteaching of the activities of daily living.
(8) Colostomy care.
(9) Care of uncontrolled medical conditions, such as brittle diabetes, and comfort care of terminal conditions.
(10) Postsurgical nursing care.
(11) Monitoring medications requiring close supervision because of fluctuating physical or psychological conditions, e.g., antihypertensives, digitalis preparations, mood-altering or psychotropic drugs, or narcotics.
(12) Preparing and monitoring response to therapeutic diets.
(13) Recording and reporting of changes in vital signs to the nurse or therapist.
h. Excluded services and costs. Services, activities, costs and time that are not covered as consumer-directed attendant care include the following (not an exclusive list):
(1) Any activity related to supervising a member. Only direct services are billable.
(2) Any activity that the member is able to perform.
(3) Costs of food.
(4) Costs for the supervision of skilled services by the nurse or therapist. The supervising nurse or therapist may be paid from private insurance, Medicare, or other third-party payment sources, or may be paid as another Medicaid service, including early and periodic screening, diagnosis and treatment services.
(5) Exercise that does not require skilled services.
(6) Parenting or child care for or on behalf of the member.
(7) Reminders and cueing.
(8) Services provided simultaneously with any other similar service regardless of funding source, including other waiver services and state supplementary assistance in-home health-related care services.
(9) Transportation costs.
(10) Wait times for any activity.
(2) Home and vehicle modification. Covered home or vehicle modifications are physical modifications to the member's home or vehicle that directly address the member's medical or remedial need. Covered modifications must be necessary to provide for the health, welfare, or safety of the member and enable the member to function with greater independence in the home or vehicle.
a. Modifications that are necessary or desirable without regard to the member's medical or remedial need and that would be expected to increase the fair market value of the home or vehicle, such as furnaces, fencing, or adding square footage to the residence, are excluded except as specifically included below. Purchasing or leasing of a motorized vehicle is excluded. Home and vehicle repairs are also excluded.
b. Only the following modifications are covered:
(1) Kitchen counters, sink space, cabinets, special adaptations to refrigerators, stoves, and ovens.
(2) Bathtubs and toilets to accommodate transfer, special handles and hoses for shower heads, water faucet controls, and accessible showers and sink areas.
(3) Grab bars and handrails.
(4) Turnaround space adaptations.
(5) Ramps, lifts, and door, hall and window widening.
(6) Fire safety alarm equipment specific for disability.
(7) Voice-activated, sound-activated, light-activated, motion-activated, and electronic devices directly related to the member's disability.
(8) Vehicle lifts, driver-specific adaptations, remote-start systems, including such modifications already installed in a vehicle.
(9) Keyless entry systems.
(10) Automatic opening device for home or vehicle door.
(11) Special door and window locks.
(12) Specialized doorknobs and handles.
(13) Plexiglas replacement for glass windows.
(14) Modification of existing stairs to widen, lower, raise or enclose open stairs.
(15) Motion detectors.
(16) Low-pile carpeting or slip-resistant flooring.
(17) Telecommunications device for the deaf or hard of hearing.
(18) Exterior hard-surface pathways.
(19) New door opening.
(20) Pocket doors.
(21) Installation or relocation of controls, outlets, switches.
(22) Air conditioning and air filtering if medically necessary.
(23) Heightening of existing garage door opening to accommodate modified van.
(24) Bath chairs.
c. A unit of service is the completion of needed modifications or adaptations.
d. All modifications and adaptations shall be provided in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local building and vehicle codes.
e. Services shall be performed following prior department approval of the modification as specified in 441-subrule 79.1(17) and a binding contract between the provider and the member.
f. All contracts for home or vehicle modification shall be awarded through competitive bidding. The contract shall include the scope of work to be performed, the time involved, supplies needed, the cost, diagrams of the project whenever applicable, and an assurance that the provider has liability and workers' compensation coverage and the applicable permit and license.
g. Service payment shall be made to the enrolled home or vehicle modification provider. If applicable, payment will be forwarded to the subcontracting agency by the enrolled home or vehicle modification provider following completion of the approved modifications. Payment of up to $6,872.85 per year may be made to certified providers upon satisfactory completion of the service.
h. Services shall be included in the member's service plan and shall exceed the Medicaid state plan services.
(3) Personal emergency response or portable locator system.
a. A personal emergency response system is an electronic device that transmits a signal to a central monitoring station to summon assistance in the event of an emergency.
(1) The necessary components of a system are:
1. An in-home medical communications transceiver.
2. A remote, portable activator.
3. A central monitoring station with backup systems staffed by trained attendants at all times.
4. Current data files at the central monitoring station containing response protocols and personal, medical, and emergency information for each member.
(2) The service shall be identified in the member's service plan.
(3) A unit of service is a one-time installation fee or one month of service.
(4) Maximum units per state fiscal year shall be the initial installation and 12 months of service.
b. A portable locator system is an electronic device that transmits a signal to a monitoring device. The system allows a member to access assistance in the event of an emergency and allows law enforcement or the monitoring system provider to locate a member who is unable to request help or to activate a system independently. The member must be unable to access assistance in an emergency situation due to the member's age or disability.
(1) The required components of the portable locator system are:
1. A portable communications transceiver or transmitter to be worn or carried by the member.
2. Monitoring by the provider at a central location with response protocols and personal, medical, and emergency information for each member as applicable.
(2) The service shall be identified in the member's service plan.
(3) Payable units of service are purchase of equipment, an installation or set-up fee, and monthly fees.
(4) Maximum units per state fiscal year shall be one equipment purchase, one installation or set-up fee, and 12 months of service.
(4) Specialized medical equipment.
a. Specialized medical equipment shall include medically necessary items which are for personal use by members with a physical disability and which:
(1) Provide for the health and safety of the member,
(2) Are not ordinarily covered by Medicaid,
(3) Are not funded by educational or vocational rehabilitation programs, and
(4) Are not provided by voluntary means.
b. Coverage includes, but is not limited to:
(1) Electronic aids and organizers.
(2) Medicine dispensing devices.
(3) Communication devices.
(4) Bath aids.
(5) Noncovered environmental control units.
(6) Repair and maintenance of items purchased through the waiver.
c. Payment of up to $6,872.85 per year may be made to enrolled specialized medical equipment providers upon satisfactory receipt of the service.
d. The need for specialized medical equipment shall be:
(1) Documented by a health care professional as necessary for the member's health and safety, and
(2) Identified in the member's service plan.
e. Payment for most items shall be based on a fee schedule. The amount of the fee shall be determined as directed in 441-subrule 79.1(17).
(5) Transportation. Transportation services may be provided for members to conduct business errands and essential shopping, to travel to and from work or day programs, and to reduce social isolation. A unit of service is one mile of transportation or one one-way trip.
(6) Consumer choices option. The consumer choices option is service activities provided pursuant to subrule 78.34(13).
(7) General service standards. All physical disability waiver services must be provided in accordance with the following standards:
a. Reimbursement shall not be available under the waiver for any services that the member can obtain as other nonwaiver Medicaid services or through any other funding source.
b. All services provided under the waiver must be delivered in the least restrictive environment possible and in conformity with the member's service plan.
c. All rights restrictions must be implemented in accordance with 441-subrule 77.25(4). The member service plan or treatment plan shall include documentation of:
(1) Any restrictions on the member's rights, including the rights of privacy, dignity, respect, and freedom from coercion and restraint.
(2) The need for the restriction.
(3) The less intrusive methods of meeting the need that have been tried but did not work.
(4) Either a plan to restore those rights or written documentation that a plan is not necessary or appropriate.
(5) Established time limits for periodic reviews to determine if the restriction is still necessary or can be terminated.
(6) The informed consent of the member.
(7) An assurance that the interventions and supports will cause no harm to the member.
(8) A regular collection and review of data to measure the ongoing effectiveness of the restriction.
d. Services must be billed in whole units.
e. For all services with a 15-minute unit of service, the following rounding process will apply:
(1) Add together the minutes spent on all billable activities during a calendar day for a daily total.
(2) For each day, divide the total minutes spent on billable activities by 15 to determine the number of full 15-minute units for that day.
(3) Round the remainder using these guidelines: Round 1 to 7 minutes down to zero units; round 8 to 14 minutes up to one unit.
(4) Add together the number of full units and the number of rounded units to determine the total number of units to bill for that day.

This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code section 249A.4.


Iowa Admin. Code r. 441-78.46
ARC 9045B, IAB 9/8/10, effective 11/1/10; ARC 9403B, IAB 3/9/11, effective 5/1/11; ARC 9704B, IAB 9/7/11, effective 9/1/11; ARC 9884B, IAB 11/30/11, effective 1/4/12; ARC 0707C, IAB 5/1/2013, effective 7/1/2013; ARC 0842C, IAB 7/24/2013, effective 7/1/2013; ARC 1056C, IAB 10/2/2013, effective 11/6/2013; ARC 1071C, IAB 10/2/2013, effective 10/1/2013 Amended by IAB September 3, 2014/Volume XXXVII, Number 5, effective 8/13/2014 Amended by IAB July 8, 2015/Volume XXXVIII, Number 01, effective 7/1/2015 Amended by IAB December 7, 2016/Volume XXXIX, Number 12, effective 11/15/2016 Amended by IAB February 1, 2017/Volume XXXIX, Number 16, effective 3/8/2017 Amended by IAB July 4, 2018/Volume XLI, Number 1, effective 8/8/2018 Amended by IAB May 8, 2019/Volume XLI, Number 23, effective 7/1/2019 Amended by IAB May 5, 2021/Volume XLIII, Number 23, effective 7/1/2021 Amended by IAB July 28, 2021/Volume XLIV, Number 2, effective 9/1/2021 Amended by IAB September 8, 2021/Volume XLIV, Number 5, effective 8/17/2021 Amended by IAB December 29, 2021/Volume XLIV, Number 13, effective 3/1/2022 Amended by IAB March 8, 2023/Volume XLV, Number 18, effective 5/1/2023

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