RULE 567-43.6 - Residual disinfectant and disinfection by product precursors

RULE 567-43.6. Residual disinfectant and disinfection by product precursors

(1) Residual disinfectant.

a. Applicability.

(1) CWS and NTNC systems. This rule establishes criteria under which CWS and NTNC public water supply systems that add a chemical disinfectant to the water in any part of the drinking water treatment process or that provide water that contains a chemical disinfectant must modify their practices to meet the MCLs listed in 567-416. (455B), the maximum residual disinfectant levels (MRDL) listed in this subrule, and treatment technique requirements for disinfection byproduct precursors listed in subrule 43.6(3).

(2) TNC systems with chlorine dioxide disinfection. This rule establishes criteria under which TNC public water supply systems that use chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant or oxidant must modify their practices to meet the chlorine dioxide MRDL listed in paragraph 43.6(1)"b. "

(3) Compliance dates. Compliance dates for this rule are based upon the source water type and the population served. Systems are required to comply with this rule as follows, unless otherwise noted:

1. Surface water and IGW CWS and NTNC. CWS and NTNC systems using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (IGW) in whole or in part and which serve 10,000 or more persons must comply with this rule beginning January 1, 2002. CWS and NTNC surface water or IGW systems serving fewer than 10,000 persons must comply with this rule beginning January 1, 2004.

2. Groundwater CWS and NTNC. CWS and NTNC systems using only groundwater not under the direct influence of surface water must comply with this rule beginning January 1, 2004.

3. TNC using chlorine dioxide. TNC systems serving over 10,000 persons and using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water and using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant or oxidant must comply with any requirements for chlorine dioxide in this rule beginning January 1,2002. TNC systems serving 10,000 persons or less, regardless of source water type, and using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant or oxidant must comply with any requirements for chlorine dioxide in this rule beginning January 1, 2004.

4. Extension of compliance period for GAC or membrane technology installation. A system that is installing GAC or membrane technology to comply with this rule may apply to the department for an extension of up to 24 months past the dates in 43.6(1)"a"(3), but not beyond December 31,2003. In granting the extension, the department will set a schedule for compliance and may specify any interim measures the system must take. Failure to meet a compliance schedule or interim treatment requirements constitutes a violation of the public drinking water supply rules, requires public notification per 567-subrule 42.1(1), and may result in an administrative order.

(4) Control of residual disinfectants. Notwithstanding the MRDLs in this rule, systems may increase residual disinfectant levels of chlorine or chloramines (but not chlorine dioxide) in the distribution system to a level and for a time necessary to protect public health, to address specific microbiological contamination problems caused by circumstances such as, but not limited to, distribution line breaks, storm run-off events, source water contamination events, or cross-connection events.

(5) Consecutive systems. Consecutive systems that provide water containing a disinfectant or oxidant are required to comply with this rule.

(6) Systems with multiple water sources. Systems with water sources that are used independently from each other, are not from the same source as determined by the department, or do not go through identical treatment processes are required to conduct the monitoring for the applicable disinfectants or oxidants and disinfection byproducts during operation of each source. The system must comply with this rule during the use of each water source.

b. Maximum residual disinfectant levels. Maximum residual disinfectant levels (MRDLs) are as follows:

Disinfection Residual

MRDL (mg/L)

Chloramines

4.0 as Cl2

Chlorine

4.0 as Cl2

Chlorine dioxide

0.8 as CIo2

c. Monitoring requirements for residual disinfectants.

(1) General requirements.

1. Systems must take all samples during normal operating conditions. If the system does not use the disinfectant or oxidant on a daily basis, the system must conduct the required daily monitoring each day the disinfectant or oxidant is used, and any required monthly monitoring during those months in which the disinfectant or oxidant is used during any portion of the month.

2. Failure to monitor in accordance with the monitoring plan required under 43.6(1) "c"(1)"5" is a monitoring violation.

3. Failure to monitor is a violation for the entire period covered by the annual average where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the system's failure to monitor makes it impossible to determine compliance with MRDLs.

4. Systems may use only data collected under the provisions of this rule or of 567-416. (455B) to qualify for reduced monitoring.

5. Systems required to monitor under the provisions of this rule or of 567-416. (455B) must develop and implement a monitoring plan, in accordance with 567-paragraph 41.6(1) "c"(1)"6."

(2) Chlorine and chloramines.

1. Routine monitoring. Community and nontransient noncommunity water systems that use chlorine or chloramines must measure the residual disinfectant level at the same points in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in 567-subrule 41.2(1). Surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water systems may use the results of residual disinfectant concentration sampling conducted under 43.5(4) "b"(2)"2," in lieu of taking separate samples.

2. Reduced monitoring. Chlorine and chloramine monitoring may not be reduced.

(3) Chlorine dioxide.

1. Routine monitoring. Any public water supply systems that use chlorine dioxide for disinfection or oxidation must take daily samples at the entrance to the distribution system. For any daily sample that exceeds the MRDL, the system must take samples in the distribution system the following day at the locations required by 43.6(1)"c"(3)"2," in addition to the sample required at the entrance to the distribution system.

2. Additional monitoring. On each day following a routine sample monitoring result that exceeds the MRDL, the system is required to take three chlorine dioxide distribution system samples.

* If chlorine dioxide or chloramines are used to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution system, or if chlorine is used to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution system and there are no disinfection addition points after the entrance to the distribution system (i.e., no booster chlorination), the system must take three samples as close to the first customer as possible, at intervals of at least six hours.

* If chlorine is used to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution system and there are one or more disinfection addition points after the entrance to the distribution system (i.e., booster chlorination), the system must take one sample at each of the following locations: as close to the first customer as possible, in a location representative of average residence time, and as close to the end of the distribution system as possible (reflecting maximum residence time in the distribution system).

3. Reduced monitoring. Chlorine dioxide monitoring may not be reduced.

d. Analytical requirements for residual disinfectants.

(1) Analytical methods. Systems must measure residual disinfectant concentrations for free chlorine, combined chlorine (chloramines), and chlorine dioxide by the methods listed in the following table:

Approved Methods for Residual Disinfectant Compliance Monitoring

Methodology

Standard Methods

Other Method

Residual measured1

Free Chlorine

Combined Chlorine

Total Chlorine

Chlorine Dioxide

Amperometric Titration

4500-C1 D

ASTM: D 1253-86 (96), 03, 08, 14

X

X

X

  

Low Level Amperometric Titration

4500-C1 E

        

X

  

DPD Ferrous Titrimetric

4500-C1 F

  

X

X

X

  

DPD Colorimetric

4500-C1 G

Hach Method 102604

X

X

X

  

Syringaldazine (FACTS)

4500-C1 H

  

X

        

Amperometric Sensor

  

ChloroSense3

X

  

X

  

Online Chlorine Analyzer

  

EPA 334.02

X

  

X

  

Indophenol Colorimetric

  

Hach Method 102416

X

X

X

  

Iodometric Electrode

4500-C1I

        

X

  

DPD

4500-ClO2D

           

X

Amperometric Method II

4500-ClO2E

           

X

Lissamine Green Spectrophotometric

  

EPA: 327.0 Rev. 1.1

        

X

Amperometric Sensor

  

ChlordioX Plus5

        

X

The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed below. The incorporation by reference of the following documents was approved by the Director of the Federal Register on February 16, 1999, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFRPart51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the sources listed below. Information regarding obtaining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800)426-4791. Documents may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 401 M Street, SW, Washington, DC 20460 (telephone: (202)260-3027); or at the Office of Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20408.

The following method is available from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428:

Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 11.01, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1996: Method D 1253-86. The following methods are available from the American Public Health Association, 800 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3710:

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th (1995), 20th (1998), 21st (2005), and 22nd (2012) editions,

American Public Health Association: Methods: 4500-C1 D, 4500-C1 E, 4500-C1 F, 4500-C1 G, 4500-C1 H, 4500-C11, 4500-ClO2

E. Only the 19th and 20th editions may be used for the chlorine dioxide Method 4500-C1O2 D. The following methods are available from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (telephone: (800)553-6847):

"Determination of Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorite Ion in Drinking Water Using Lissamine Green B and Horseradish Peroxidase with Detection by Visible Spectrophotometry, Revision 1.1," USEPA, May 2005, EPA 815-R-05-008.

1X indicates method is approved for measuring specified residual disinfectant. Free chlorine or total chlorine may be measured for demonstrating compliance with the chlorine MRDL, and combined chlorine or total chlorine may be measured for demonstrating compliance with the chloramine MRDL.

2EPA Method 334.0, "Determination of Residual Chlorine in Drinking Water Using an On-Line Chlorine Analyzer," August 2009. EPA 815-B-09-013. Available at www.epa/gov/safewater/methods/analyticalmethodsogwdw.html.

3ChloroSense, "Measurement of Free and Total Chlorine in Drinking Water by Palintest ChloroSense," September 2009. Available at www.nemi.gov or from Palintest Ltd., 21 Kenton Lands Road, P.O. Box 18395, Erlanger, KY 41018.

4Hach Method 10260, "Determination of Chlorinated Oxidants (Free and Total) in Water Using Disposable Planar Reagent-Filled Cuvettes and Mesofluidic Channel Colorimetry," April 2013. Available at Hach Company, P.O. Box 389, Loveland, CO 80539, or www.hach.com .

5ChlordioX Plus. "Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorite in Drinking Water by Amperometry Using Disposable Sensors," November 2013. Available from Palintest Ltd., Jamike Avenue (Suite 100), Erlanger, KY 41018.

6Hach Company. "Hach Method 10241 - Spectrophotometric Measurement of Free Chlorine in Finished Drinking Water," November 2015, Revision 1.2. Available at www.hach.com .

(2) Test kit use. Systems may also measure residual disinfectant concentrations for chlorine, chloramines, and chlorine dioxide by using DPD colorimetric test kits acceptable to the department. Free and total chlorine residual disinfectant concentrations may be measured continuously by adapting a specified chlorine residual method for use with a continuous monitoring instrument provided the chemistry, accuracy, and precision remain the same. Instruments used for continuous monitoring must be calibrated with a grab sample measurement at least every five days.

(3) Operator requirement. Measurements for residual disinfectant concentration shall be conducted by a Grade A through IV operator meeting the requirements of 567-Chapter 81, any person under the direct supervision of a Grade A through IV operator meeting the requirements of 567-Chapter 81, or a laboratory certified by the department to perform analysis under 567-Chapter 83.

e. Compliance requirements for residual disinfectants.

(1) General requirements.

1. When compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the system's failure to monitor makes it impossible to determine compliance with MRDLs for chlorine and chloramines, this failure to monitor will be treated as a monitoring violation for the entire period covered by the annual average.

2. All samples taken and analyzed under the provisions of this rule must be included in determining compliance, even if that number is greater than the minimum required.

(2) Chlorine and chloramines.

1. Compliance must be based on a running annual arithmetic average, computed quarterly, of monthly averages of all samples collected by the system under 43.6(1)"c " (2). If the average covering any consecutive four-quarter period exceeds the MRDL, the system is in violation of the MRDL and must notify the public pursuant to 567-421. (455B), in addition to reporting to the department pursuant to 567-paragraph 42.4(3) "J. "

2. In cases where systems switch between the use of chlorine and chloramines for residual disinfection during the year, compliance must be determined by including together all monitoring results of both chlorine and chloramines in calculating compliance. Reports submitted pursuant to 567-paragraph 42.4(3) "J" must clearly indicate which residual disinfectant was analyzed for each sample.

(3) Chlorine dioxide.

1. Acute violations. Compliance must be based on consecutive daily samples collected by the system under 43.6(1)"c" (3). If any daily sample taken at the entrance to the distribution system exceeds the MRDL, and on the following day one or more of the three samples taken in the distribution system exceed the MRDL, the system is in violation of the MRDL and shall take immediate corrective action to lower the level of chlorine dioxide below the MRDL and shall notify the public pursuant to the Tier 1 requirements in 567-subrule 42.1(2) in addition to reporting to the department pursuant to 567-paragraph 42.4(3)"d." Failure to take samples in the distribution system the day following an exceedance of the chlorine dioxide MRDL at the entrance to the distribution system will also be considered an MRDL violation and the system must notify the public of the violation in accordance with the provisions for Tier 1 violations in 567-subrule 42.1(2), in addition to reporting to the department pursuant to 567-paragraph 42.4(3) "d. "

2. Nonacute violations. Compliance must be based on consecutive daily samples collected by the system under 43.6(1)"c" (3). If any two consecutive daily samples taken at the entrance to the distribution system exceed the MRDL and all distribution system samples taken are below the MRDL, the system is in violation of the MRDL and must take corrective action to lower the level of chlorine dioxide below the MRDL at the point of sampling and will notify the public pursuant to the Tier 2 requirements in 567-subrule 42.1(3), in addition to reporting to the department pursuant to 567-paragraph 42.4(3)"d. " Failure to monitor at the entrance to the distribution system the day following an exceedance of the chlorine dioxide MRDL at the entrance to the distribution system is also an MRDL violation and the system must notify the public of the violation in accordance with the provisions for Tier 2 violations in 567-subrule 42.1(3), in addition to reporting to the department pursuant to 567-paragraph 42.4(3)"d. "

f. Reporting requirements for disinfectants. Systems required to sample quarterly or more frequently must report to the department within ten days after the end of each quarter in which samples were collected, notwithstanding the public notification provisions of 567-421. (455B). Systems required to sample less frequently than quarterly must report to the department within ten days after the end of each monitoring period in which samples were collected. The specific reporting requirements for disinfectants are listed in 567-subparagraph 42.4(3)"d"(3).

(2) Disinfection byproduct precursors.

a. Applicability.

(1) Surface water or IGW CWS and NTNC systems with conventional filtration. This rule establishes criteria under which surface water or influenced groundwater CWS and NTNC public water supply systems using conventional filtration treatment, as defined in 567-402. (455B), that add a chemical disinfectant to the water in any part of the drinking water treatment process or which provide water that contains a chemical disinfectant must modify their practices to meet the MCLs listed in 567-416. (455B) and the maximum residual disinfectant levels (MRDL) and treatment technique requirements for disinfection byproduct precursors listed in this rule.

(2) CWS and NTNC systems using ozone treatment. CWS and NTNC systems that use ozone in their treatment process must comply with the bromide requirements of this subrule.

(3) Compliance dates. Compliance dates for this rule are based upon the population served. CWS and NTNC systems using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water in whole or in part and which serve 10,000 or more persons must comply with this rule beginning January 1, 2002; while those systems serving fewer than 10,000 persons must comply with this rule beginning January 1, 2004.

(4) The department may require groundwater systems to conduct monitoring for disinfection byproduct precursors as a part of an operation permit.

b. Monitoring requirements for disinfection by product precursors.

(1) Routine monitoring for total organic carbon (TOC).

1. Surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water systems which use conventional filtration treatment must monitor each treatment plant for total organic carbon (TOC) no later than at the point of combined filter effluent turbidity monitoring and representative of the treated water. The systems must also monitor for TOC in the source water prior to any treatment at the same time as monitoring for TOC in the treated water. These samples (source water and treated water) are referred to as paired samples. At the same time the source water sample is taken, all systems must monitor for alkalinity in the source water prior to any treatment. Systems must take one paired set of source water and treated water samples and one source water alkalinity sample per month per plant at a time representative of normal operating conditions and influent water quality.

2. Surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water systems which do not use conventional filtration treatment must conduct the TOC monitoring under 43.6(2)"b" (1)'T' in order to qualify for reduced disinfection byproduct monitoring for TTHM and HAA5 under 567-paragraph 41.6(1)"c" (4)"2." The source water TOC running annual average must be less than or equal to 4.0 mg/L based on the most recent four quarters of monitoring on a continuing basis at each treatment plant to reduce or remain on reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5. Once qualified for reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5, a system may reduce source water TOC monitoring to quarterly TOC samples taken every 90 days at a location prior to any treatment.

(2) Reduced monitoring. The department may allow surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water systems with an average treated water TOC of less than 2.0 mg/L for two consecutive years, or less than 1.0 mg/L for one year, to reduce monitoring for both TOC and alkalinity to one set of paired samples and one source water alkalinity sample per plant per quarter. The system must revert to routine monitoring in the month following the quarter when the annual average treated water TOC is greater than or equal to 2.0 mg/L.

(3) Bromide. The department may allow systems required to analyze for bromate to reduce bromate monitoring from monthly to once per quarter, if the system demonstrates that the average source water bromide concentration is less than 0.05 mg/L based upon representative monthly measurements for one year. The system must continue bromide monitoring to remain on reduced bromate monitoring.

(4) The department may assign disinfection byproduct precursor monitoring prior to the compliance dates in 43.6(2)"a"(3) as part of an operation permit.

c. Analytical requirements for disinfection byproduct precursors.

(1) Analytical methods. Systems required to monitor disinfectant byproduct precursors must use the following methods, which must be conducted by a certified laboratory pursuant to 567-Chapter 83, unless otherwise specified.

Approved Methods for Disinfection Byproduct Precursor Monitoring1

Analyte

Methodology

EPA

Standard Methods

ASTM

Other

Alkalinity6

Titrimetric

  

2320B

D 1067-92B

  
  

Electrometric titration

        

1-1030-85

Bromide

Ion chromatography

300.0

        
     

300.1

        
     

317.0 Rev. 2.0

        
     

326.0

        
           

D 6581-00

  

Dissolved Organic Carbon2 (DOC)

High temperature combustion

415.3 Rev. 1.2

5310B or 5310B-00

     
  

Persulfate-UV or heated-persulfate oxidation

415.3 Rev. 1.2

5310C or 5310C-00

     
  

Wet oxidation

415.3 Rev. 1.1, 415.3 Rev. 1.2

5310D or 5310D-00

     

pH3

Electrometric

150.1

4500-H+-B

D 1293-84

  
     

150.2

        

Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance (SUVA)

Calculation using DOC and UV254 data

415.3 Rev. 1.2

        

Total Organic Carbon4

High temperature combustion

415.3 Rev. 1.2

5310B or 5310B-00

     
  

Persulfate-UV or heated-persulfate oxidation

415.3 Rev. 1.2

5310C or 5310C-00

  

Hach

Method

102677

  

Wet oxidation

415.3 Rev. 1.1, 415.3 Rev. 1.2

5310D or 5310D-00

     
  

Ozone Oxidation

        

Hach

Method

102618

Ultraviolet Absorption at 254 nm5

Spectrophotometry

415.3 Rev. 1.1, 415.3 Rev. 1.2

5910B or 5910B-00, 11

     

1The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed below. The incorporation by reference of the following documents was approved by the Director of the Federal Register on February 16, 1999, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the sources listed below. Information regarding obtaining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800)426-4791. Documents may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 401 M Street, SW, Washington, DC 20460 (telephone: (202)260-3027); or at the Office of Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20408.

The following methods are available from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428:

Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 11.01, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1996: Method D 1067-92B and Method D 1293-84.

Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 11.01, American Society for Testing and Materials, 2001 (or any year containing the cited version): Method D 6581-00.

The following methods are available from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (telephone: (800)553-6847):

"Determination of Inorganic Anions in Drinking Water by Ion Chromatography, Revision 1.0," EPA-600/R-98/118, 1997 (NTIS, PB98-169196): Method 300.1.

Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, EPA-600/4-79-020, March 1983, (NTIS PB84-128677): Methods 150.1 and 150.2.

Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Environmental Samples, EPA-600/R-93/100, August 1993, (NTIS PB94-121811): Method 300.0.

"Determination of Inorganic Oxyhalide Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water Using Ion Chromatography with the Addition of a Postcolumn Reagent for Trace Bromate Analysis, Revision 2.0," USEPA, July 2001, EPA 815-B-01-001: Method 317.0.

"Determination of Inorganic Oxyhalide Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water Using Ion Chromatography Incorporating the Addition of a Suppressor Acidified Postcolumn Reagent for Trace Bromate Analysis, Revision 1.0," USEPA, June 2002, EPA 815-R-03-007: Method 326.0.

"Determination of Total Organic Carbon and Specific UV Absorbance at 254 nm in Source Water and Drinking Water, Revision 1.1," USEPA, February 2005, EPA/600/R-05/055: Method 415.3 Revision 1.1.

"Determination of Total Organic Carbon and Specific UV Absorbance at 254 nm in Source Water and Drinking Water, Revision 1.2," USEPA, September 2009, EPA/600/R-09/122: Method 415.3 Revision 1.2. The following methods are available from the American Public Health Association, 800 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3710:

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th (1995), 21st (2005), and 22nd (2012) editions, American Public Health Association: Methods: 2320B (20th edition, 1998, is also accepted for this method), 4500-H+-B, and 5910B (22nd edition, 2012, is also accepted for this method).

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Supplement to the 19th edition (1996), 21st (2005), and 22nd editions, American Public Health Association: Methods: 5310B, 5310C, and 5310D.

For method numbers ending "-00", the year in which each method was approved by the Standard Methods Committee is designated by the last two digits in the method number. The methods listed are the only online versions that are IBR-approved. Method 1-1030-85 is available from the Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225-0425.

2Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). DOC and UV254 samples used to determine a SUVA value must be taken at the same time and at the same location, prior to the addition of any disinfectant or oxidant by the system. Prior to analysis, DOC samples must be filtered through a 0.45 |i pore-diameter filter, as soon as practical after sampling, not to exceed 48 hours. After filtration, DOC samples must be acidified to achieve pH less than or equal to 2 with minimal addition of the acid specified in the method or by the instrument manufacturer. Acidified DOC samples must be analyzed within 28 days. Inorganic carbon must be removed from the samples prior to analysis. Water passed through the filter prior to filtration of the sample must serve as the filtered blank. This filtered blank must be analyzed using procedures identical to those used for analysis of the samples and must meet a DOC concentration of <0.5 mg/L.

3pH must be measured by a laboratory certified by the department to perform analysis under 567-Chapter 83; a Grade II, III or IV operator meeting the requirements of 567-Chapter 81; or any person under the supervision of a Grade II, III or IV operator meeting the requirements of 567-Chapter 81.

4Total Organic Carbon (TOC). Inorganic carbon must be removed from the samples prior to analysis. TOC samples may not be filtered prior to analysis. TOC samples must be acidified at the time of sample collection to achieve a pH less than or equal to 2 with minimal addition of the acid specified in the method or by the instrument manufacturer. Acidified TOC samples must be analyzed within 28 days.

5Ultraviolet Absorption at 254 nm (UV254). DOC and UV254 samples used to determine a SUVA value must be taken at the same time and at the same location, prior to the addition of any disinfectant or oxidant by the system. UV absorption must be measured at 253.7 nm (may be rounded off to 254 nm). Prior to analysis, UV254 samples must be filtered through a 0.45 u pore-diameter filter. The pH of UV254 samples may not be adjusted. Samples must be analyzed as soon as practical after sampling, not to exceed 48 hours.

6Alkalinity must be measured by a laboratory certified by the department to perform analysis under 567-Chapter 83; a Grade II, III or IV operator meeting the requirements of 567-Chapter 81; or any person under the supervision of a Grade II, III or IV operator meeting the requirements of 567-Chapter 81. Only the listed titrimetric methods are acceptable.

7Hach Company. "Hach Method 10267 - Spectrophotometric Measurement of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Finished Drinking Water," December 2015, Revision 1.2. Available at www.hach.com .

8Hach Company. "Hach Method 10261 - Total Organic Carbon in Finished Drinking Water by Catalyzed Ozone Hydroxyl Radical Oxidation Infrared Analysis," December 2015, Revision 1.2. Available at www.hach.com .

(2) SUVA. Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance (SUVA) is equal to the UV absorption at 254nm (UV254) (measured in nr1) divided by the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (measured as mg/L). In order to determine SUVA, it is necessary to separately measure UV254 and DOC. When determining SUVA, systems must use the methods stipulated in subparagraph 43.6(1)"c"{1) to measure DOC and UV254. SUVA must be determined on water prior to the addition of disinfectants/oxidants by the system. DOC and UV254 samples used to determine an SUVA value must be taken at the same time and at the same location.

(3) Magnesium. All methods approved for magnesium in 567-subparagraph 41.3(1)"e"(1)are approved for use in measuring magnesium under this rule.

d. Compliance requirements for disinfection byproduct precursors.

(1) General requirements. All samples taken and analyzed under the provisions of this rule must be included in determining compliance, even if that number is greater than the minimum required.

(2) Compliance determination. Compliance must be determined as specified by 43.6(3)"c. " The department may assign monitoring through an operation permit, or systems may begin monitoring to determine whether Step 1 TOC removals can be met 12 months prior to the compliance date for the system. This monitoring is not required and failure to monitor during this period is not a violation. However, any system that does not monitor during this period and then determines in the first 12 months after the compliance date that it is not able to meet the Step 1 requirements in 43.6(3)"b "(2), and must therefore apply for alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements, is not eligible for retroactive approval of alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements as allowed pursuant to 43.6(3)"b" (3) and is in violation. Systems may apply for alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements anytime after the compliance date. For systems required to meet Step 1 TOC removals, if the value calculated under 43.6(3) "c"(1)"4" is less than 1.00, the system is in violation of the treatment technique requirements and must notify the public pursuant to 567-421. (455B), in addition to reporting to the department pursuant to 567-paragraph 42.4(3)"d. "

e. Reporting requirements for disinfection byproduct precursors. Systems required to sample quarterly or more frequently must report to the department within ten days after the end of each quarter in which samples were collected, notwithstanding the public notification provisions of 567-421. (455B). Systems required to sample less frequently than quarterly must report to the department within ten days after the end of each monitoring period in which samples were collected. The specific reporting requirements for disinfection byproduct precursors are listed in 567-subparagraph 42.4(3)"d" (4).

(3) Treatment technique for control of disinfection byproduct precursors,

a. Applicability.

(1) Systems using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water and conventional filtration treatment (as defined in 567-402. (455B)) must operate with enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening to achieve the TOC percent removal levels specified in paragraph"b " of this subrule unless the system meets at least one of the alternative compliance criteria listed in 43.6(3)"a "(2) or (3).

(2) Alternative compliance criteria for enhanced coagulation and enhanced softening systems. Systems using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water and conventional filtration treatment may use the alternative compliance criteria in 43.6(3)"o "(2)"i "through "6" to comply with this subrule in lieu of complying with 43.6(3)"b." Systems must still comply with monitoring requirements in 43.6(2)"b. "

1. The system's source water TOC level, measured according to 43.6(2)"c"(1) is less than 2.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

2. The system's treated water TOC level, measured according to 43.6(2)"c"(1) is less than 2.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

3. The system's source water TOC level, measured according to 43.6(2)"c"(1) is less than 4.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as a running annual average; the source water alkalinity, measured according to 43.6(2)"c"(1), is greater than 60 mg/L as CaC03, calculated quarterly as a running annual average; and either the TTHM and HAA5 running annual averages are no greater than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively; or prior to the effective date for compliance in 567-subparagraph 41.6(1) "a"(3) and in 43.6(1) "a"(3) and 43.6(2)"a"(3), the system has made a clear and irrevocable financial commitment not later than the effective date for compliance in 567-subparagraph 41.6(1)"a"(3) and in 43.6(1)"a"(3) and 43.6(2)"a"(3), to use of technologies that will limit the levels of TTHMs and HAA5 to no more than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively. Systems must submit evidence of a clear and irrevocable financial commitment, in addition to a schedule containing milestones and periodic progress reports for installation and operation of appropriate technologies, to the department for approval not later than the effective date for compliance in 567-subparagraph 41.6(1)"a"(3) and in 43.6(1)"a"(3) and 43.6(2)"a"(3). These technologies must be installed and operating not later than June 30, 2005. Failure to install and operate these technologies by the date in the approved schedule will constitute a treatment technique violation.

4. The TTHM and HAA5 running annual averages are less than or equal to 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively, and the system uses only chlorine for primary disinfection and maintenance of a residual in the distribution system.

5. The system's source water SUVA, prior to any treatment and measured monthly according to 43.6(2)"c, " is less than or equal to 2.0 L/mg-m, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

6. The system's finished water SUVA, measured monthly according to 43.6(2)"c, " is less than or equal to 2.0 L/mg-m, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

(3) Additional alternative compliance criteria for softening systems. Systems practicing enhanced softening that cannot achieve the TOC removals required by 43.6(3)"b"(2) may use the alternative compliance criteria in 43.6(3) "o "(3)"l " and "2" in lieu of complying with 43.6(3)"b. " Systems must still comply with monitoring requirements in 43.6(2)"b. "

1. Softening that lowers the treated water alkalinity to less than 60 mg/L as CaC03, measured monthly according to 43.6(2)"c" and calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

2. Softening that removes at least 10 mg/L of magnesium hardness as CaC03, measured monthly and calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

b. Enhanced coagulation and enhanced softening performance requirements.

(1) Systems must achieve the percent reduction of TOC specified in 43.6(3)"b"(2) between the source water and the combined filter effluent, unless the department approves a system's request for alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2 requirements under 43.6(3)"b ".(3))

(2) Required Step 1 TOC reductions, indicated in the following table, are based upon specified source water parameters measured in accordance with 43.6(2)"c. " Systems using softening are required to meet the Step 1 TOC reductions in the right-hand column (Source water alkalinity > 120 mg/L) for the specified source water TOC:

Step 1 Required Removal of TOC by Enhanced Coagulation and Enhanced Softening for Surface Water or IGW Systems Using Conventional Treatment1,2

Source water TOC, mg/L

  

Source water Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCo3

0-60

>60-120

>1203

>2.0 - 4.0

35.0%

25.0%

15.0%

>4.0 - 8.0

45.0%

35.0%

25.0%

>8.0

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

1Systems meeting at least one of the conditions in 43.6(3)"a " (2)"1" to "6" are not required to operate with enhanced coagulation.

2Softening systems meeting one of the alternative compliance criteria in 43.6(3) "a "(3) are not required to operate with enhanced softening.

3Systems practicing softening must meet the TOC removal requirements in this column.

(3) Surface water and groundwater under the influence of surface water systems using conventional treatment that cannot achieve the Step 1 TOC removals required by 43.6(3)"b"(2) due to water quality parameters or operational constraints must apply to the department for approval of alternative minimum Step 2 TOC removal requirements submitted by the system within three months of failure to achieve the TOC removals required by 43.6(3)"b "(2). If the department approves the alternative minimum Step 2 TOC removal requirements, the department may make those requirements retroactive for the purposes of determining compliance. The system must meet the Step 1 TOC removals contained in 43.6(3)"b"(2) until the department approves the alternate minimum Step 2 TOC removal requirements.

(4) Alternate minimum Step 2 TOC removal requirements. Applications made to the department by enhanced coagulation systems for approval of alternate minimum Step 2 TOC removal requirements under 43.6(3)"b "(3) must include, as a minimum, results of bench-scale or pilot-scale testing conducted under 43.6(3)"b " (4)"1" below and be used to determine the alternate enhanced coagulation level.

1. Alternate enhanced coagulation level. Alternate enhanced coagulation level is defined as coagulation at a coagulant dose and pH as determined by the method described in 43.6(3)"b" (4)"1" to "5" such that an incremental addition of 10 mg/L of alum (or equivalent amount of ferric salt) results in a TOC removal of less than or equal to 0.3 mg/L. The percent removal of TOC at this point on the "TOC removal versus coagulant dose" curve is then defined as the minimum TOC removal required for the system. Once approved by the department, this minimum requirement supersedes the minimum TOC removal required by the table in 43.6(3)"b " (2). This requirement will be effective until such time as the department approves a new value based on the results of a new bench-scale or pilot-scale test. Failure to achieve department-set alternative minimum TOC removal levels is a treatment technique violation.

2. Bench-scale or pilot-scale testing of enhanced coagulation must be conducted by using representative water samples and adding 10 mg/L increments of alum (or equivalent amounts of ferric salt) until the pH is reduced to a level less than or equal to the enhanced coagulation Step 2 target pH shown in the following table:

Enhanced Coagulation Step 2 Target pH

Alkalinity (mg/L as CaC03)

Target pH

0-60

5.5

>60-120

6.3

> 120-240

7.0

>240

7.5

3. For waters with alkalinities of less than 60 mg/L for which addition of small amounts of alum or equivalent addition of iron coagulant drives the pH below 5.5 before significant TOC removal occurs, the system must add necessary chemicals to maintain the pH between 5.3 and 5.7 in samples until the TOC removal of 0.3 mg/L per 10 mg/L alum added (or equivalent addition of iron coagulant) is reached.

4. The system may operate at any coagulant dose or pH necessary (consistent with other public drinking water rules in 567-Chapters 41 through 43) to achieve the minimum TOC percent removal approved under 43.6(3)"b" (3).

5. If the TOC removal is consistently less than 0.3 mg/L of TOC per 10 mg/L of incremental alum dose at all dosages of alum (or equivalent addition of iron coagulant), the water is deemed to contain TOC not amenable to enhanced coagulation. The system may then apply to the department for a waiver of enhanced coagulation requirements.

c. Compliance calculations.

(1) Surface water or groundwater under the influence of surface water systems other than those identified in 43.6(3)"a"(2) or (3) must comply with requirements contained in 43.6(3)"b"(2) or (3). Systems must calculate compliance quarterly, beginning after the system has collected 12 months of data, by determining an annual average using the following method:

1. Step 1: Determine actual monthly TOC percent removal using the following equation, to two decimal places:

2. Step 2: Determine the required monthly TOC percent removal from either 43.6(3)"b"(2) or (3).

3. Step 3: Divide the "actual monthly TOC percent removal" value (from Step 1) by the "required monthly TOC percent removal" value (from Step 2). Determine this value for each of the last 12 months.

4. Step 4: Add together the "monthly percent removal ratio" values from Step 3 for each of the last 12 months and divide by 12, to determine the annual average value.

5. Step 5: If the "annual average" value calculated in Step 4 is less than 1.00, the system is not in compliance with the TOC percent removal requirements.

(2) Systems may use the provisions in 43.6(3) "c"(2)"1" through "5" in lieu of the calculations in 43.6(3)"c " (1)"1" through "5" to determine compliance with TOC percent removal requirements.

1. In any month that the system's treated or source water TOC level, measured according to 43.6(2)"c"(1) is less than 2.0 mg/L, the system may assign amonthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in 43.6(3) "c"(1)"3") when calculating compliance under the provisions of 43.6(3)"c"(1).

2. In any month that a system practicing softening removes at least 10 mg/L of magnesium hardness as CaC03, the system may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in 43.6(3) "c"(1)"3") when calculating compliance under the provisions of 43.6(3) "c"(1).

3. In any month that the system's source water SUVA, prior to any treatment and measured according to 43.6(2)"c"(2), is less than or equal to 2.0 L/mg-m, the system may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in 43.6(3) "c"(1)"3") when calculating compliance under the provisions of 43.6(3)"c"(1).

4. In any month that the system's finished water SUVA, measured according to 43.6(2)"c"(2),is less than or equal to 2.0 L/mg-m, the system may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in 43.6(3) "c"(1)"3") when calculating compliance under the provisions of 43.6(3)"c"(1).

5. In any month that a system using enhanced softening lowers alkalinity below 60 mg/L as CaC03, the system may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in 43.6(3) "c"(1)"3") when calculating compliance under the provisions of 43.6(3) "c"(1).

(3) Surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water systems using conventional treatment may also comply with the requirements of this subrule by meeting the criteria in43.6(3)"a"(2)or(3).

d. Treatment technique requirements for disinfection byproduct precursors. The treatment techniques to control the level of disinfection byproduct precursors in drinking water treatment and distribution systems, for surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water systems using conventional filtration treatment, are enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening.

(ARC 9915B, IAB 12/2014/11, effective 1/18/12 Amended by IAB April 11, 2018/Volume XL, Number 21, effective 5/16/2018)

The following state regulations pages link to this page.