A. Civics.
(1) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of civic and political institutions by:
(a) explaining the role of the political decision-making process at the tribal, state, and local levels of government;
(b) describing the relationships of tribal, state, and local governments with the national government under the federal system;
(c) comparing and contrasting global and historical government systems to the United States federal system; and
(d) examining how conflict over social class (e.g. castas), land, and culture led to Mexican independence from Spain.
(2) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of processes, rules, and laws by:
(a) describing the relationship between a nation-state and its colonies;
(b) drawing conclusions about how the policies of the Spanish monarchy in New Spain impacted the people of New Spain; and
(c) evaluating New Mexico's transition into a United States territorial government from the perspectives of the various groups residing in the territory at the time.
(3) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of civic dispositions and democratic principles by:
(a) describing the role of citizens in ensuring the long-term survival of their community, including cooperation, obligations, rights, and responsibilities; and
(b) analyzing United States policies on expansion into the southwest, including how they reflected United States civic ideals of the time and conflicted with those that resided in New Mexico already and had historically made their home here.
B. Economics and personal financial literacy.
(1) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of economic decision-making by:
(a) explaining how tribal, state, and local government agencies work to sustain resources in New Mexico;
(b) discussing New Mexico's economic limitations and successes;
(c) demonstrating how early humans compete and cooperate to gather and use resources;
(d) explaining the economic motivation of Spaniards as they enter the lands of, and interact with, the indigenous people of the Americas;
(e) describing Spanish economics policies that led to colonial isolation and their impact on the people of New Mexico; and
(f) summarizing the relationship between specialization and interdependence between 1821 CE and 1850 CE.
(2) The student shall demonstrate an understanding economic systems and models by showing the correlation between the territorial and indigenous economies, including how both were impacted by United States federal policies.
(3) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of money and markets by:
(a) defining the relationship between specialization and interdependence between c. 1200 BCE and c. 1500 CE;
(b) explaining early trade networks and their impact on cultural groups;
(c) investigating the use of trade routes and systems to analyze the economic impact they had on New Mexico and those who traded with New Mexicans; and
(d) describing the economy of territorial New Mexico from various perspectives.
(4) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of the global economy by demonstrating connections between the economies of Spain and the indigenous people of the Americas.
(5) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of personal financial literacy by:
(a) summarizing how the distribution of resources impacts consumerism and individual financial decisions; and
(b) differentiating between saving and investing.
C. Geography.
(1) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of geographic representations and reasoning by:
(a) explaining the physical and human characteristics of New Mexico using the five themes of geography;
(b) discussing the role of El Camino Real as a significant corridor for movement of people, goods, and ideas; and
(c) describing how the movement of people influenced the division and control of resources.
(2) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of movement, population, and systems by:
(a) discussing patterns of migration of early people as they settled across New Mexico and the southwest region;
(b) analyzing the movement of people, goods, and ideas across the world during the age of exploration;
(c) distinguishing land use patterns of Anglo-Americans during the American westward expansion period; and
(d) identifying cultural diffusion into and out of the New Mexico territory.
(3) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of human-environmental interactions and sustainability by:
(a) describing how environmental factors affect human activities and resources;
(b) comparing and contrasting nomadic and semi-nomadic lifestyles;
(c) analyzing land use patterns of ancestral Pueblo, Mogollon, and Athabaskan peoples;
(d) discussing the importance of resource shortages on the lifestyles of the Mogollon and ancestral Puebloans;
(e) explaining how differing places, people, and resources affected events and conditions in New Mexico during the Spanish colonial period; and
(f) evaluating and comparing practices of land usage and ownership between indigenous people and Spaniards.
D. History.
(1) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of historical change, continuity, context, and reconciliation by:
(a) explaining the importance of artifacts and oral histories in understanding how prehistoric people lived;
(b) connecting cultural adaptations of the Pueblo, Apache, and Diné people to today;
(c) comparing and contrasting Athabascan culture, agricultural practices, and settlement patterns with those of the Pueblos;
(d) exploring the interactions between the Spaniards and indigenous people;
(e) comparing and contrasting the revolts and resistance movements under Spanish rule;
(f) explaining the impact Mexican independence had on New Mexico;
(g) demonstrating how troubles between Texas and the government of Mexico impacted New Mexico; and
(h) evaluating the significance of short- and long-range trails throughout the lands gained in the Mexican cession.
(2) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of causes and consequences by identifying the causes and consequences of United States government policies that impacted the territory of New Mexico.
(3) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of historical thinking by:
(a) describing the technical limitations of historians and archeologists studying the distant past;
(b) explaining the political and religious motivations of Spaniards as they encounter the indigenous people of the Americas;
(c) analyzing the patterns of colonization, exploration, destruction, and creation that came with the occupation of the Americas by Spaniards;
(d) interpreting the factors that led people in New Mexico to resist and rebel against political leadership between 1821 CE and 1850 CE;
(e) categorizing causes and consequences of the United States military invasion of Mexico and New Mexico; and
(f) exploring the impact of land ownership throughout New Mexico history.
(4) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of critical consciousness and perspective by assessing evidence of Spanish influence in New Mexico today.
E. Ethnic, cultural, and identity studies. The student shall demonstrate an understanding of diversity and identity by:
(1) analyzing how groups maintain their cultural heritage and how we see this heritage through the symbols, traditions, and culture of New Mexico;
(2) defining and explaining the present demographics of New Mexico;
(3) evaluating how society's responses to different social identities lead to access and barriers for various demographic groups in relation to various societal institutions, including education, healthcare, government, and industry;
(4) analyzing who have been key figures that have contributed to an individual culture, and what they did;
(5) describing the relationship between cultural heritage(s) and personal identity or identities;
(6) identifying what tribal leaders want the world to see when their culture is on display, and how to address negative perceptions;
(7) demonstrating how diversity includes the impact of unequal power relations on the development of group identities and cultures;
(8) brainstorming ways in which New Mexicans might heal from past and current injustices;
(9) describing key figures that have made significant contributions to an individual culture;
(10) exploring personal, familial, and societal cultures in the modern day;
(11) discussing the importance of respecting individual cultures and exploring how to address stereotypes;
(12) using primary and secondary sources to evaluate the lasting impacts of unequal power relations and disenfranchisement of persons and groups;
(13) identifying how stereotyping influences social perspectives about members of a group; and
(14) identifying and describing the traditions, rites, and norms of the groups to which the student identifies as belonging; and exploring how these traditions, rights, and norms may have changed over time.
F. Inquiry.
(1) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of constructing compelling and supporting questions by:
(a) developing compelling (e.g. big idea) questions about a relevant topic of interest; and
(b) creating supporting questions from credible sources to expand upon the compelling question.
(2) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of gathering and evaluating sources by:
(a) identifying, locating, and gathering reliable and relevant primary and secondary sources from a variety of media, such as print, digital, multimedia, artifacts, and oral traditions;
(b) evaluating primary and secondary sources for fact, opinion, author's bias, perspective of the creator, and relevance to the topic;
(c) analyzing various forms of media to identify polarizing language, logical fallacy, and reasonable judgment; and
(d) using a coherent system or structure to evaluate the credibility of a source by determining its relevance and intended use.
(3) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of developing claims by:
(a) using primary and secondary sources to develop an argument and cite specific textual evidence to support the claim; and
(b) making connections between current events, historical materials, and personal experience.
(4) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of communicating and critiquing conclusions by:
(a) presenting student-developed texts communicating thinking and understanding, including written text, oral presentation, visual representation, and multimedia; and
(b) engaging in academic discussions analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.
(5) The student shall demonstrate an understanding taking informed action by:
(a) examining the relationship between stereotypes, bias, and group identity;
(b) exploring opportunities to be an ally and describing ways in which stereotyping can be a barrier to acting as an ally; and
(c) engaging in positive civic behaviors to make decisions and take action in classrooms, schools, and communities.


N.M. Code R. §
Adopted by New Mexico Register, Volume XXXIII, Issue 04, February 22, 2022, eff. 2/22/2022

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