A. High school geography.
(1) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of geographic representations and reasoning by:
(a) analyzing and evaluating the characteristics, purposes, and uses of geographic tools, knowledge, and skills;
(b) creating maps to display and explain the spatial patterns of culture and environment;
(c) interpreting geographic characteristics of cultures, economies, and political systems;
(d) analyzing geographic representations to explain changes over time; and
(e) applying geographic knowledge and geospatial skills to interpret the past and present to make informed decisions.
(2) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of location, place, and religion by:
(a) interpreting the reciprocal relationship between physical, geographical locations, and the patterns and processes humans create within them;
(b) evaluating the process of place-making and the development of place-based identity; and
(c) explaining the distinguishing features of formal, functional, and perceptual regions.
(3) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of movement, population, and systems by:
(a) explaining the causes, characteristics, and impact of human movement (migration, immigration, emigration) and settlement patterns at the local, national, and global scale;
(b) evaluating the causes, characteristics, and impact of diffusion: the spread of ideas, religion, beliefs, cultural practices and traits, language, artifacts, methods, technologies, and diseases over time;
(c) describing how human systems, perceptions, and identities shape places and regions over time;
(d) analyzing and predicting how location, place, and region impact the evolution of human perspectives and identities;
(e) describing how particular historical events and developments shape human processes and systems in a given place or region over time; and
(f) predicting future social, political, economic, cultural, spiritual, and environmental opportunities, and obstacles associated with movement, population, decision-making, and perspectives in a given place or region.
(4) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of human-environmental interactions and sustainability by:
(a) developing reasoned ethical judgements about people, places, events, phenomena, ideas, or developments, and determining appropriate ways to respond;
(b) analyzing shifting United States government environmental policies and regulations in response to changing human-environment interactions;
(c) evaluating the consequences of human-made and natural catastrophes on global trade, politics, and human migration;
(d) assessing the reciprocal relationships between physical environment and culture within local, national, and global scales;
(e) evaluating how economic globalization and the scarcity of resources contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among countries;
(f) analyzing how the forces of cooperation and conflict within and among people, nations, and empires influence the division and control Earth's surface and resources; and
(g) assessing how social, economic, political, and environmental developments at global, national, regional, and local levels affect the sustainability of modern and traditional cultures.
B. Inquiry.
(1) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of constructing compelling and supporting questions by:
(a) creating compelling questions representing key ideas within the disciplines; and
(b) developing supporting questions that contribute to an inquiry and demonstrate how, through engaging source work, new compelling and supporting questions emerge.
(2) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of gathering and evaluating sources by:
(a) gathering relevant information from multiple sources representing a wide range of views while using the origin, authority, structure, context, and corroborative value of the sources to guide the selection; and
(b) evaluating the credibility of a source by examining how experts value the source.
(3) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of developing claims by:
(a) identifying evidence that draws information directly and substantively from multiple sources to detect inconsistencies in evidence to revise or strengthen claims; and
(b) refining claims and counterclaims attending to precision, significance, and knowledge conveyed through the claim while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.
(4) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of communicating and critiquing conclusions by:
(a) constructing arguments using precise and knowledgeable claims, with evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging counterclaims and evidentiary weaknesses;
(b) constructing explanations using reasoning, correct sequence, examples, and details with significant and pertinent information and data, while acknowledging the strengths and weaknesses of the explanations given its purpose;
(c) presenting adaptations of arguments and explanations that feature evocative ideas and perspectives on issues and topics to reach a range of audiences and venues outside the classroom using print, oral, and digital technologies; and
(d) critiquing the use of claims and evidence in arguments for credibility.
(5) The student shall demonstrate an understanding of taking informed action by:
(a) using disciplinary and interdisciplinary lenses to understand the characteristics and causes of local, regional, and global problems; instances of such problems in multiple contexts; and challenges and opportunities faced by those trying to address these problems over time and place; and
(b) applying a range of deliberative and democratic strategies and procedures to make decisions and take action in their classrooms, schools, and out-of-school contexts.


N.M. Code R. §
Adopted by New Mexico Register, Volume XXXIII, Issue 04, February 22, 2022, eff. 2/22/2022

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