Or. Admin. R. 603-051-0020 - Definitions

As used in OAR 603-051-0005 to 603-051-0020:

(1) "Mature" means that the apples have reached the state of development which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. Before a mature apple becomes overripe, it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples:
(a) "Hard" means apples with a tenacious flesh and starchy flavor;
(b) "Firm" means apples with a tenacious flesh but which are becoming crisp with a slightly starchy flavor, except the Delicious variety;
(c) "Firm ripe" means apples with crisp flesh except that the flesh of the Gano, Ben Davis, and Rome Beauty varieties may be slightly mealy;
(d) "Ripe" means apples with mealy flesh and soon to become soft for the variety.
(2) "Overripe" means apples which are dead ripe, with flesh very mealy or soft, and past commercial utility.
(3) "Carefully Hand-Picked" means that the apples do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground.
(4) "Clean" means that the apples are free from excessive dirt, dust, spray residue, and other foreign material.
(5) "Fairly Well Formed" means that the apple may be slightly abnormal in shape but not to an extent which detracts materially from its appearance.
(6) "Injury" means any specific defect defined in this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which more than slightly detracts from the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality of the apple. The following specific defects shall be considered as injury:
(a) Russeting in the stem cavity or calyx basin which cannot be seen when the apple is placed stem end or calyx end down on a flat surface shall not be considered in determining whether or not an apple is injured by russeting. Smooth, net-like russeting outside of the stem cavity or calyx basin shall be considered as injury when an aggregate area of more than ten percent of the surface is covered, and the color of the russeting shows no very pronounced contrast with the background color of the apple, or lesser amounts of more conspicuous net-like russeting when the appearance is affected to a greater extent than the above amount permitted;
(b) Sunburn or sprayburn, when the discolored area does not blend into the normal color of the fruit;
(c) Dark brown or black limb rubs which affect a total area of more than 3/8 inch in diameter, except that light brown limb rubs of a russet character shall be considered under the definition of injury by russeting (see section (11) of this rule);
(d) Hail marks, drought spots, other similar depressions or scars:
(A) When the skin is broken, whether healed or unhealed;
(B) When there is appreciable discoloration of the surface;
(C) When any surface indentation exceeds 1/16 inch in depth;
(D) When any surface indentation exceeds 1/4 inch in diameter; or
(E) When the aggregate affected area of such spots exceeds 3/8 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule).
(e) Disease, red skin spots which are thinly scattered over more than 1/10 of the surface, or dark, heavily concentrated spots which affect an area of more than 1/4 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule);
(f) Insects:
(A) Aphis or thrip marks that are rough or pebbly, or which are not rough or pebbly affecting more than ten percent of the surface;
(B) Worm holes.
(7) "Damage" means any specific defect defined in this section, or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, or any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the appearance or the edible or shipping quality of the apple. The following specific defects shall be considered as damage:
(a) Russeting in the stem cavity or calyx basin which cannot be seen when the apple is placed stem end or calyx end down on a flat surface shall not be considered in determining whether or not an apple is damaged by russeting, except that excessively rough or bark-like russeting in the stem cavity or calyx basin shall be considered as damage when the appearance of the apple is materially affected. The following types and amounts of russeting outside of the stem cavity or calyx basin shall be considered as damage:
(A) Russeting which is excessively rough on Roxbury Russet and other similar varieties;
(B) Smooth, net-like russeting, when an aggregate area of more than 15 percent of the surface is covered, and the color of the russeting shows no very pronounced contrast with the background color of the apple, or lesser amounts of more conspicuous net-like russeting when the appearance is affected to a greater extent than the above amount permitted;
(C) Smooth, solid russeting, when an aggregate area of more than five percent of the surface is covered, and the pattern and color of the russeting shows no very pronounced contrast with the background color of the apple, or lesser amounts of more conspicuous solid russeting when the appearance is affected to a greater extent than the above amount permitted;
(D) Slightly rough russeting which covers an aggregate area of more than 1/2 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule);
(E) Rough russeting which covers an aggregate area of more than 1/4 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule).
(b) Sunburn or sprayburn which has caused blistering or cracking of the skin, or when the discolored area does not blend into the normal color of the fruit unless the injury can be classed as russeting;
(c) Limb rubs which affect a total area of more than 1/2 inch in diameter, except that light brown limb rubs of a russet character shall be considered under the definition of damage by russeting (see section (11) of this rule);
(d) Hail marks, drought spots, other similar depressions or scars:
(A) When any unhealed mark is present;
(B) When any surface indentation exceeds 1/8 inch in depth;
(C) When the skin has not been broken and the aggregate affected area exceeds 1/2 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule); or
(D) When the skin has been broken and well healed and the aggregate affected area exceeds 1/4 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule).
(e) Stem or calyx cracks which are not well healed, or well healed stem or calyx cracks which exceed an aggregate length of 1/2 inch;
(f) Disease:
(A) Scab spots which affect a total area of more than 1/4 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule);
(B) Red skin spots which are thinly scattered over more than 1/10 of the surface, or dark, heavily concentrated spots which affect an area of more than 1/2 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule).
(g) Insects:
(A) Aphis or thrip marks that are rough or pebbly or which are not rough or pebbly affecting more than 20 percent of the surface;
(B) Worm holes.
(8) "Serious Damage" means any specific defect defined in this section, or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects which seriously detracts from the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality of the apple. The following specific defects shall be considered as serious damage:
(a) The following types and amounts of russeting shall be considered as serious damage: Smooth, solid russeting, when more than 1/2 of the surface in the aggregate is covered, including any russeting in the stem cavity or calyx basin, or slightly rough, or excessively rough or bark-like russeting, which detracts from the appearance of the fruit to a greater extent than the amount of smooth, solid russeting permitted; provided, that any amount of characteristic russeting shall be permitted on Newtown variety;
(b) Sunburn or sprayburn which seriously detracts from the appearance of the fruit;
(c) Limb rubs which affect more than 1/10 of the surface in the aggregate;
(d) Hail marks, drought spots, or scars, if they materially deform or disfigure the fruit, or if such defects affect more than 1/10 of the surface in the aggregate; provided, that no hail marks which are unhealed shall be permitted and not more than an aggregated area of 1/2 inch shall be allowed for well healed hail marks where the skin has been broken (see section (11) of this rule);
(e) Stem or calyx cracks which are not well healed, or well healed stem or calyx cracks which exceed an aggregate length of 1/2 inch;
(f) Visible water core which affects an area of more than 1/2 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule);
(g) Disease:
(A) Scab spots which affect total area of more than 3/4 inch in diameter (see section (11) of this rule);
(B) Red skin spots which affect more than 1/3 of the surface;
(C) Bitter pit or Jonathan spot which is thinly scattered over more than 1/10 of the surface and does not materially deform or disfigure the fruit.
(h) Insects:
(A) Aphis pebbling or thrip marks which seriously distract from the appearance;
(B) Worm holes.
(9) "Seriously Deformed" means that the apple is so badly misshapen that its appearance is seriously affected.
(10) "Diameter". When measuring for minimum size, "diameter" means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, "diameter" means the smallest dimension of the apple determined by passing the apple through a round opening in any position.
(11) "Area". Where in the regulations relating to standards for apples there is a reference "see section (11) of this rule", the word "area" as used therein refers to a circle of the specified diameter.

Notes

Or. Admin. R. 603-051-0020
AD 787(11-64), f. 8-12-64, ef. 9-1-64; AD 926(12-70), f. 9-2-70, ef. 10-1-70

Stat. Auth.: ORS 561.190 & ORS 632.900 - ORS 632.980

Stats. Implemented: ORS 632.900 - ORS 632.980

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