S.C. Code Regs. 61-58.13.C - Monitoring Requirements

Current through Register Vol. 46, No. 3, March 25, 2022

(1) General Requirements
(a) Systems must take all samples during normal operating conditions.
(b) Systems may consider multiple wells drawing water from a single aquifer as one treatment plant for determining the minimum number of TTHM and HAA5 samples required, with Department approval in accordance with criteria developed by the Department and agreed to by the Administrator.
(c) Failure to monitor in accordance with the monitoring plan required under paragraph (6) of this section is a monitoring violation.
(d) Failure to monitor will be treated as a violation for the entire period covered by the annual average where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the system's failure to monitor makes it impossible to determine compliance with MCLs or MRDLs.
(e) Systems may use only data collected under the provisions of this regulation to qualify for reduced monitoring.
(2) Monitoring Requirements for Disinfection Byproducts.
(a) TTHMs and HAA5--At least twenty-five (25) percent of all samples collected each quarter shall be at locations representing maximum residence time in the distribution system. Remaining samples shall be collected from locations representative of at least average residence time in the distribution systems and representing the entire distribution system, taking into account number of persons served, different sources of water and different treatment methods. The minimum number of samples required shall be determined based on the source of supply and the populations served by a public water system.
(i) CWSs and NTNCWSs that use a surface water source or a ground water source under the influence of surface water which serve 10,000 or more persons must collect samples as follows:
(A) Routine Monitoring--A minimum of four (4) water samples per treatment plant per quarter in accordance with paragraph (2)(a) of this section.
(B) Reduced Monitoring--If the system has a source water annual average TOC level, before any treatment, less than 4.0 mg/l and a TTHM annual average less than 0.040 mg/l and HAA5 annual average less than 0.030 mg/l, then the minimum number of samples required may be reduced to one (1) sample per treatment plant per quarter at a distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time.
(C) Systems on a reduced monitoring schedule may remain on that reduced schedule as long as the average of all samples taken in the year (for systems which must monitor quarterly) or the result of the sample (for systems which must monitor no more frequently than annually) is no more than 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively. Systems that do not meet these levels must resume monitoring at the frequency identified in paragraph (2)(a)(i)(A) of this section in the quarter immediately following the monitoring period in which the system exceeds 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively.
(D) The system may be returned to routine monitoring at any time at the Department's discretion.
(ii) CWSs and NTNCWSs that use a surface water source or a ground water source under the influence of surface water which serve from 500 to 9,999 persons must collect samples as follows:
(A) Routine Monitoring--A minimum of one (1) water sample per treatment plant per quarter at a location representing maximum residence time in the distribution system.
(B) Reduced Monitoring--If the system has a source water annual average TOC level, before any treatment, less than 4.0 mg/l and a TTHM annual average less than 0.040 mg/l and HAA5 annual average less than 0.030 mg/l, then the minimum number of samples required may be reduced to one (1) sample per treatment plant per year during a month of warmest water temperature at a distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time.
(C) Systems on a reduced monitoring schedule may remain on that reduced schedule as long as the average of all samples taken in the year (for systems which must monitor quarterly) or the result of the sample (for systems which must monitor no more frequently than annually) is no more than 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively. Systems that do not meet these levels must resume monitoring at the frequency identified in paragraph (2)(a)(ii)(A) of this section in the quarter immediately following the monitoring period in which the system exceeds 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively.
(D) The system may be returned to routine monitoring at any time at the Department's discretion.
(iii) CWSs and NTNCWSs that use a surface water source or a ground water source under the influence of surface water which serve less than 500 persons must collect samples as follows:
(A) Routine Monitoring--A minimum of one water sample per treatment plant per year during a month of warmest water temperature at a location representing maximum residence time in the distribution system.
(B) Reduced Monitoring--There is no reduced monitoring allowed for these systems
(C) Increased Monitoring--If the sample (or average of annual samples, if more than one is taken) exceeds the MCL, the system must increase monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per quarter, taken at a point reflecting the maximum residence time in the distribution system, until the system meets criteria in paragraph (2)(a)(iii)(D) of this section.
(D) Systems on increased monitoring may return to routine monitoring if, after at least one year of monitoring their TTHM annual average is less than or equal to 0.060 mg/L and their HAA5 annual average is less than or equal to 0.045 mg/L.
(iv) CWSs and NTNCWSs that use only ground water not under the influence of surface water which serve 10,000 or more persons and use a chemical disinfectant must collect samples as follows:
(A) Routine Monitoring--A minimum of one water sample per treatment plant per quarter at a location representing maximum residence time in the distribution system.
(B) Reduced Monitoring--If the system has a TTHM annual average less than 0.040 mg/l and HAA5 annual average less than 0.030 mg/l, then the minimum number of samples required may be reduced to one (1) sample per treatment plant per year during a month of warmest water temperature at a distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time.
(C) Systems on a reduced monitoring schedule may remain on that reduced schedule as long as the average of all samples taken in the year (for systems which must monitor quarterly) or the result of the sample (for systems which must monitor no more frequently than annually) is no more than 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively. Systems that do not meet these levels must resume monitoring at the frequency identified in paragraph (2)(a)(iv)(A) of this section in the quarter immediately following the monitoring period in which the system exceeds 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively.
(D) The system may be returned to routine monitoring at any time at the Department's discretion.
(v) CWSs and NTNCWSs that use only ground water not under the influence of surface water which serve less than 10,000 persons and use a chemical disinfectant must collect samples as follows:
(A) Routine Monitoring--A minimum of one (1) water sample per treatment plant per year during a month of warmest water temperature at a location representing maximum residence time in the distribution system.
(B) Increased Monitoring--If the sample taken, or average of annual samples if more than one (1) sample is taken, exceeds the MCL, the system must increase monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per quarter, taken at a location representing the maximum residence time in the distribution system, until the system meets the criteria in paragraph (2)(a)(v)(F) of this section for reduced monitoring.
(C) Reduced Monitoring--If the system has a TTHM annual average less than 0.040 mg/l and HAA5 annual average less than 0.030 mg/l for two (2) consecutive years, or a TTHM annual average less than 0.020 mg/l and HAA5 annual average less than 0.015 mg/l for one (1) year, then the minimum number of samples required may be reduced to one sample per treatment plant per three (3) year cycle taken during a month of warmest water temperature at a distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time, with the three (3) year cycle beginning on January 1 following the quarter in which the system qualifies for reduced monitoring.
(D) Systems on a reduced monitoring schedule may remain on that reduced schedule as long as the average of all samples taken in the year is no more than 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively. Systems that do not meet these levels must resume monitoring at the frequency identified in paragraph (v)(A) of this section in the quarter immediately following the monitoring period in which the system exceeds 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively. If either the TTHM annual average is greater than 0.080 mg/L or the HAA5 annual average is greater than 0.060 mg/L, the system must go to the increased monitoring identified in paragraph (v)(B) of this section in the quarter immediately following the monitoring period in which the system exceeds the 0.080 mg/L or 0.060 mg/L for TTHMs or HAA5 respectively.
(E) The system may be returned to routine monitoring at any time at the Department's discretion.
(F) Systems on increased monitoring may return to routine monitoring if, after at least one (1) year of monitoring their TTHM annual average is less than or equal to 0.060 mg/L and their HAA5 annual average is less than or equal to 0.045 mg/L.
(vi) Monitoring requirements for source water TOC.

In order to qualify for reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5 under paragraph C(2)(a)(i)(B) or C(2)(a)(ii)(B) of this section, Subpart H systems not monitoring under the provisions of paragraph C(4) of this section must take monthly TOC samples every 30 days at a location prior to any treatment, beginning April 1, 2008 or earlier, if specified by the Department. In addition to meeting other criteria for reduced monitoring in paragraph C(2)(a)(i)(B) or C(2)(a)(ii)(B) of this section, the source water TOC running annual average must be less than or equal to 4.0 mg/L (based on the most recent four quarters of monitoring) on a continuing basis at each treatment plant to reduce or remain on reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5. Once qualified for reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5 under paragraph C(2)(a)(i)(B) or C(2)(a)(ii)(B) of this section, a system may reduce source water TOC monitoring to quarterly TOC samples taken every 90 days at a location prior to any treatment.

(b) Chlorite. Community and non-transient, non-community water systems using chlorine dioxide, for disinfection or oxidation, must conduct monitoring for chlorite.
(i) Routine Monitoring.
(A) Daily monitoring. Systems must take daily samples at the entrance to the distribution system. For any daily sample that exceeds the chlorite MCL, the system must take additional samples in the distribution system the following day at the locations required by R.61-58.13.C(2)(b)(ii) in addition to the sample required at the entrance to the distribution system.
(B) Monthly monitoring. Systems must take a three-sample set each month in the distribution system. The system must take one sample at each of the following locations: near the first customer, at a location representative of average residence time, and at a location reflecting the maximum residence time in the distribution system. Any additional routine sampling must be conducted in the same manner (as three-sample sets, at the specified locations). The system may use the results of additional monitoring conducted under R.61-58.13.C(2)(b)(ii) to meet the requirement for this monitoring.
(ii) Additional monitoring. On each day following a routine sample monitoring result that exceeds the chlorite MCL at the entrance to the distribution system, the system is required to take three chlorite distribution system samples at the following locations: as close to the first customer as possible, in a location representative of average residence time, and as close to the end of the distribution system as possible (reflecting maximum residence time in the distribution system).
(iii) Reduced monitoring.
(A) Chlorite monitoring at the entrance to the distribution system required by R.61-58.13.C(2)(b)(i)(A) may not be reduced.
(B) Chlorite monitoring in the distribution system required by R.61-58.13.C(2)(b)(i)(B) may be reduced to one three-sample set per quarter after one year of monitoring where no individual chlorite sample taken in the distribution system under R.61-58.13.C(2)(b)(i)(B) has exceeded the chlorite MCL and the system has not been required to conduct monitoring under R.61-58.13.C(2)(b)(ii). The system may remain on the reduced monitoring schedule until either of the three individual chlorite samples taken quarterly in the distribution system under R.61-58.13.C(2)(b)(i)(B) exceeds the chlorite MCL or the system is required to conduct monitoring under R.61-58.13.C(2)(b)(ii), at which time, the system must revert to routine monitoring.
(c) Bromate
(i) Routine monitoring. Community and non-transient, non-community systems using ozone, for disinfection or oxidation, must take one sample per month for each treatment plant in the system using ozone. Systems must take samples monthly at the entrance to the distribution system while the ozonation system is operating under normal conditions.
(ii) Reduced Monitoring
(A) Until March 31, 2009, Systems required to analyze for bromate may reduce monitoring from monthly to once per quarter, if the system demonstrates that the average source water bromide concentration is less than 0.05 mg/L based upon representative monthly bromide measurements for one year. The system may remain on reduced bromate monitoring until the running annual average source water bromide concentration, computed quarterly, is equal to or greater than 0.05 mg/L based upon representative monthly measurements. If the running annual average source water bromide concentration is greater than or equal to 0.05 mg/L, the system must resume routine monitoring required by R.61-58.13.C(2)(c)(i).
(B) Beginning April 1, 2009, systems may no longer use the provisions of R.61-58.C(2)(c)(ii)(A) to qualify for reduced monitoring. A system required to analyze for bromate may reduce monitoring from monthly to quarterly, if the system's running annual average bromate concentration is less than or equal to 0.0025 mg/L based on monthly bromate measurements under R.61-58.13.C(2)(c)(i) for the most recent four quarters, with samples analyzed using analytical methods identified in 40 CFR 141.132(b)(3)(ii)(B) (1-04-06 edition). If a system has qualified for reduced bromate monitoring under R.61-58.13.C(2)(c)(ii)(A), that system may remain on reduced monitoring as long as the running annual average of quarterly bromate samples is less than or equal to 0.0025 mg/L based on samples analyzed using analytical methods identified in 40 CFR 141.132(b)(3)(ii)(B) (1-04-06 edition). If the running annual average bromate concentration is greater than 0.0025 mg/L, the system must resume routine monitoring required by R.61-58.13.C(2)(c)(i).
(3) Monitoring requirements for disinfectant residuals.
(a) Chlorine and Chloramines.
(i) Routine Monitoring--Until March 31, 2016, community and non-transient non-community water systems that use chlorine or chloramines must measure the residual disinfectant level in the distribution system at the same point s in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in R.61-58.5.G. Beginning April 1, 2016, community and non-transient non-community water systems that use chlorine or chloramines must measure the residual disinfectant level in the distribution system at the same point in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in R.61-58.17.E through R.61-68.17.I. Systems that use a surface water source or a ground water source under the influence of surface water may use the results of residual disinfectant concentration sampling conducted under R.61-58.10.F(2)(f) for unfiltered systems or R.61-58.10.F(3)(c) for systems which filter, in lieu of taking separate samples.
(ii) Reduced Monitoring--Monitoring may not be reduced.
(b) Chlorine Dioxide.
(i) Routine Monitoring--CWSs, NTNCWSs, and TNCWSs that use chlorine dioxide for disinfection or oxidation must take daily samples at the entrance to the distribution system. For any daily sample that exceeds the MRDL, the system must take samples in the distribution system the following day at the locations required by paragraph (3)(b)(ii) of this section, in addition to the sample required at the entrance to the distribution system.
(ii) Additional Monitoring--On each day following a routine sample monitoring result that exceeds the MRDL, the system is required to take three chlorine dioxide distribution system samples. If chlorine dioxide or chloramines are used to maintain a disinfectant residual in the distribution system, or if chlorine is used to maintain a disinfectant residual in the distribution system and there are no disinfection addition points after the entrance to the distribution system (i.e., no booster chlorination), the system must take three samples as close to the first customer as possible, at intervals of at least six hours. If chlorine is used to maintain a disinfectant residual in the distribution system and there are one or more disinfection addition points after the entrance to the distribution system (i.e., booster chlorination), the system must take one sample at each of the following locations; as close to the first customer as possible, in a location representative of average residence time, and as close to the end of the distribution system as possible (reflecting maximum residence time in the distribution system).
(iii) Reduced Monitoring--Chlorine dioxide monitoring may not be reduced.
(4) Monitoring Requirements for Disinfection Byproduct Precursors (DBPP).
(a) Routine Monitoring--Surface water systems and ground water systems under the influence of surface water which use conventional filtration treatment must monitor each treatment plant for Total Organic Carbon (TOC) no later than the point of combined filter effluent turbidity monitoring and representative of the treated water. All systems required to monitor under this paragraph must also monitor for TOC in the source water prior to any treatment at the same time as monitoring for TOC in the treated water. These samples (source water and treated water) are referred to as paired samples. At the same time as the source water sample is taken, systems must monitor for alkalinity in the source water prior to any treatment. Systems must take one paired sample and one source water alkalinity sample per month per plant at a time representative of normal operating conditions and influent water quality.
(b) Reduced Monitoring--Surface water systems and ground water systems under the influence of surface water with an average treated water TOC of less than 2.0 mg/L for two consecutive years, or less than 1.0 mg/L for one year, may reduce monitoring for both TOC and alkalinity to one paired sample and one source water alkalinity sample per plant per quarter. The system must revert to routine monitoring in the month following the quarter when the annual average treated water TOC >=2.0 mg/L.
(5) Bromide--Systems required to analyze for bromate may reduce bromate monitoring from monthly to once per quarter, if the system demonstrates that the average source water bromide concentration is less than 0.05 mg/L based upon representative monthly measurements for one year. The system must continue bromide monitoring to remain on reduced bromate monitoring.
(6) Monitoring Plans--Each system required to monitor under this regulation must develop and implement a monitoring plan. The system must maintain the plan and make it available for inspection by the Department and the general public no later than 30 days following the applicable compliance dates in R.61-58.13(B)(2)(B)(2). All surface water systems and ground water systems under the influence of surface water serving more than 3300 people must submit a copy of the monitoring plan to the Department no later than the date of the first report required under R.61-58.13(E)(E). The Department may also require the plan to be submitted by any other system. After review, the Department may require changes in any plan elements. The plan must include at least the following elements.
(a) Specific locations and schedules for collecting samples for any parameters included in this regulation.
(b) How the system will calculate compliance with MCLs, MRDLs, and treatment techniques.
(c) If approved for monitoring as a consecutive system, or if providing water to a consecutive system, under the provisions of R.61-58.5(X)(X), the sampling plan must reflect the entire distribution system.

Notes

S.C. Code Regs. 61-58.13.C
Amended by State Register Volume 38, Issue No. 9, eff. 9/26/2014.

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