Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1200-03-16-.29 - KRAFT PULP MILLS

(1) Applicability and Designation of Affected Facility.
(a) The provisions of this rule are applicable to the following affected facilities in kraft pulp mills: Digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, recovery furnace, smelt dissolving tank, lime kiln, and condensate stripper system. In pulp mills where kraft pulping is combined with neutral sulfite semichemical pulping, the provisions of this rule are applicable when any portion of the material charged to an affected facility is produced by the kraft pulping operation.
(b) Except as noted in subpart (4)(a)1.(iv) of this rule, any facility under subparagraph (a) of this paragraph that commences construction or modification after November 6, l988 is subject to the requirements of this rule.
(2) Definitions.
(a) "Kraft pulp mill" means any stationary source which produces pulp from wood by cooking (digesting) wood chips in a water solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide (white liquor) at high temperature and pressure. Regeneration of the cooking chemicals through a recovery process is also considered part of the kraft pulp mill.
(b) "Neutral sulfite semichemical pulping operation" means any operation in which pulp is produced from wood by cooking (digesting) wood chips in a solution of sodium sulfite and sodium bicarbonate, followed by mechanical defibrating (grinding).
(c) "Total reduced sulfur (TRS)" means the sum of the sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, that are released during the kraft pulping operation and measured by Reference Method 16 (as referenced in 1200-03-16 - .01(5)(g)).
(d) "Digester system" means each continuous digester or each batch digester used for the cooking of wood in white liquor, and associated flash tank(s), blow tank(s), chip steamer(s), and condenser(s).
(e) "Brown stock washer system" means brown stock washers and associated knotters, vacuum pumps, and filtrate tanks used to wash the pulp following the digestion system. Diffusion washers are excluded from this definition.
(f) "Multiple-effect evaporator system" means the multiple-effect evaporators and associated condenser(s) and hotwell(s) used to concentrate the spent cooking liquid that is separated from the pulp (black liquor).
(g) "Black liquor oxidation system" means the vessels used to oxidize, with air or oxygen, the black liquor, and associated storage tank(s).
(h) "Recovery furnace" means either a straight kraft recovery furnace, or a cross recovery furnace, and includes the direct-contact evaporator for a direct-contact furnace.
(i) "Straight kraft recovery furnace" means a furnace used to recover chemicals consisting primarily of sodium and sulfur compounds by burning black liquor which on a quarterly basis contains 7 weight percent or less of the total pulp solids from the neutral sulfite semichemical process or has green liquor sulfidity of 28 percent or less.
(j) "Cross recovery furnace" means a furnace used to recover chemicals consisting primarily of sodium and sulfur compounds by burning black liquor which on a quarterly basis contains more than 7 weight percent of the total pulp solids from the neutral sulfite semichemical process and has a green liquor sulfidity of more than 28 percent.
(k) "Black liquor solids" means the dry weight of the solids which enter the recovery furnace in the black liquor.
(l) "Green liquor sulfidity" means the sulfidity of the liquor which leaves the smelt dissolving tank.
(m) "Smelt dissolving tank" means a vessel used for dissolving the smelt collected from the recovery furnace.
(n) "Lime kiln" means a unit used to calcine lime mud, which consists primarily of calcium carbonate, into quicklime, which is calcium oxide.
(o) "Condensate stripper system" means a column, and associated condensers, used to strip, with air or steam, TRS compounds from condensate streams from various processes within a kraft pulp mill.
(3) Standard for Particulate Matter and Opacity.
(a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be conducted by paragraph .01(5) of this chapter is completed, no owner or operator subject to the provisions of this rule shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere:
1. From any recovery furnace any gases which:
(i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent oxygen.
(ii) Exhibit 35 percent opacity or greater.
2. From any smelt dissolving tank any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.1 g/kg black liquor solids (dry weight) (0.2 lb/ton black liquor solids (dry weight)).
3. From any lime kiln any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of:
(i) 0.15 g/dscm (0.067 gr/dscf) corrected to 10 percent oxygen, when gaseous fossil fuel is burned.
(ii) 0.30 g/dscm (0.13 gr/dscf) corrected to 10 percent oxygen when liquid fossil fuel is burned.
(4) Standard for Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS).
(a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be conducted by paragraph .01(5) of this chapter is completed, no owner or operator subject to the provisions of this rule shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere:
1. From any digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system any gases which contain TRS in excess of 5 ppm by volume on a dry basis, corrected to 10 percent oxygen, unless the following conditions are met:
(i) The gases are combusted in a lime kiln subject to the provisions of part (a)5 of this paragraph; or,
(ii) The gases are combusted in a recovery furnace subject to the provisions of parts (a)2 or (a)3 of this paragraph; or,
(iii) The gases are combusted with other waste gases in an incinerator or other device, or combusted in a lime kiln or recovery furnace not subject to the provisions of this rule, and are subjected to a minimum temperature of 1200°F for at least 0.5 second; or,
(iv) It has been demonstrated to the Technical Secretary's satisfaction by the owner or operator that incinerating the exhaust gases from a new, modified, or reconstructed brown stock washer system is technologically or economically unfeasible. Any exempt system will become subject to the provisions of this rule if the facility is changed so that the gases can be incinerated.
(v) The gases from the digester system, brown stock washer system, or condensate stripper system are controlled by a means other than combustion. In this case, this system shall not discharge any gases to the atmosphere which contain TRS in excess of 5 ppm by volume on a dry basis, corrected to the actual oxygen content of the untreated gas stream.
(vi) The uncontrolled exhaust gases from a new, modified, or reconstructed digester system contain TRS less than 0.005 g/kg ADP (0.01 lb/ton ADP).
2. From any straight kraft recovery furnace any gases which contain TRS in excess of 5 ppm by volume on a dry basis, corrected to 8 percent oxygen.
3. From any cross recovery furnace any gases which contain TRS in excess of 25 ppm by volume on a dry basis, corrected to 8 percent oxygen.
4. From any smelt dissolving tank any gases which contain TRS in excess of 0.016 g/kg black liquor solids at H2S (0.033 lb/ton black liquor solids as H2S).
5. From any lime kiln any gases which contain TRS in excess of 8 ppm by volume on a dry basis, corrected to 10 percent oxygen.
(5) Monitoring of Emissions and Operations
(a) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this rule shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate the following continuous monitoring systems:
1. A continuous monitoring system to monitor and record the opacity of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any recovery furnace. The span of this system shall be set at 70 percent opacity.
2. Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a dry basis and the percent of oxygen by volume on a dry basis in the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any lime kiln, recovery furnace, digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system, except where the provisions of subpart (4)(a)1(iii) or (iv) of this rule apply. These systems shall be located downstream of the control device(s) and the spans of these continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set:
(i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous monitoring system, except that for any cross recovery furnace the span shall be set at 50 ppm.
(ii) At 20 percent oxygen for the continuous oxygen monitoring system.
(b) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this rule shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate the following continuous monitoring devices:
1. For any incinerator, a monitoring device which measures and records the combustion temperature at the point of incineration of effluent gases which are emitted from any digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, black liquor oxidation system, or condensate stripper system where the provisions of subpart (4)(a)1(iii) of this rule apply. The monitoring device is to be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within ± 1 percent of the temperature being measured.
2. For any lime kiln or smelt dissolving tank using a scrubber emission control device:
(i) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the pressure loss of the gas stream through the control equipment. The monitoring device is to be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate to within a gauge pressure of ± 500 pascals (ca. ± 2 inches water gauge pressure).
(ii) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the scrubbing liquid supply pressure to the control equipment. The monitoring device is to be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within ± 15 percent of design scrubbing liquid supply pressure. The pressure sensor or tap is to be located close to the scrubber liquid discharge point. The Technical Secretary shall be consulted for approval of alternative locations.
(c) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this rule shall, except where the provisions of subpart (4)(a)1.(iv) or part (4)(a)4. of this rule apply.
1. Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for the two consecutive periods of each operating day. Each 12-hour average shall be determined as the arithmetic mean of the appropriate 12 contiguous 1-hour average total reduced sulfur concentrations provided by each continuous monitoring system installed under part (a)2. of this paragraph.
2. Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average oxygen concentrations for the two consecutive periods of each operating day for the recovery furnace and lime kiln. These 12-hour averages shall correspond to the 12-hour average TRS concentrations under part (c)1. of this paragraph and shall be determined as an arithmetic mean of the appropriate 12 contiguous 1-hour average oxygen concentrations provided by each continuous monitoring system installed under part (a)2. of this paragraph.
3. Correct all 12-hour average TRS concentrations to 10 volume percent oxygen, except that all 12-hour average TRS concentration from a recovery furnace shall be corrected to 8 volume percent using the following equation:

Ccorr = Cmeas (21-X/21-Y ) where:

Ccorr = the concentration corrected for oxygen.

Cmeas = the concentration uncorrected for oxygen.

X = The volumetric oxygen concentration in percentage to be corrected to (8 percent for recovery furnaces and 10 percent for lime kilns , incinerators, or other devices).

Y = the measured 12-hour average volumetric oxygen concentration.

4. Record once per shift measurements obtained from the continuous monitoring devices installed under part (b)2. of this paragraph.
(d) For the purpose of reports required under 1200-3-16-.01(7)(c), any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this rule shall report semiannually periods of excess emissions as follows:
1. For emissions from any recovery furnace periods of excess emissions are:
(i) All 12-hour averages of TRS concentrations above 5 ppm by volume for straight kraft recovery furnaces and above 25 ppm by volume for cross recovery furnaces.
(ii) All 6-minute average opacities that exceed 35 percent.
2. For emissions from any lime kiln, periods of excess emissions are all 12-hour average TRS concentration above 8 ppm by volume.
3. For emissions from any digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system periods of excess emissions are:
(i) All 12-hour average TRS concentrations above 5 ppm by volume unless the provisions of subparts (4)(a)1.(i), (ii), or (iv) of this rule apply; or (ii) All periods in excess of 5 minutes and their duration during which the combustion temperature at the point of incineration is less than 1200° F, where the provisions of subpart (4)(a)1.(iii) of this rule apply.
(e) The Technical Secretary will not consider periods of excess emissions reported under subparagraph (d) of this paragraph to be indicative of a violation of rule .01(6)(d) of this chapter provided that:
1. The percent of the total number of possible contiguous periods of excess emissions in a quarter (excluding periods of startup, shutdown, or malfunction and periods when the facility is not operating) during which excess emissions occur does not exceed:
(i) One percent for TRS emissions from recovery furnaces.
(ii) Six percent for average opacities from recovery furnaces.
2. The Technical Secretary determines that the affected facility, including air pollution control equipment, is maintained and operated in a manner which is consistent with good air pollution control practice for minimizing emissions during periods of excess emissions.
(6) Test Methods and Procedures
(a) For determining the concentration of particulate matter and associated moisture content, the sampling time for each run shall be at least 60 minutes and the sampling rate shall be at least 0.85 dscm/hr (0.53 dscf/min) except that shorter sampling times, when necessitated by process variables or other factors, may be approved by the Technical Secretary. Water shall be used as the cleanup solvent instead of acetone in the sample recovery procedure outlined in Method 5 (as specified in 1200-3-16 - .01(5)(g)5.).
(b) In-stack filtration as specified in 1200-3-16-.01(5)(g) 17. may be used for determining compliance with subpart (3)(a)1.(i) of this rule provided, that a constant value of 0.009 g/dscm (0.004 gr/dscf) is added to the results of Method 17 and the stack temperature is no greater than 205°C (ca. 400°F). Water shall be used as the cleanup solvent instead of acetone in the sample recovery procedure outlined in Method 17 (as referenced in 1200-3-16-.01(5)(g) 17.).
(c) For the purpose of determining compliance with paragraph (4) of this rule, the following reference methods shall be used:
1. Reference method listed in 1200-3-16-.01(5)(g) 16. or at the discretion of the owner or operator, 1200-3-16-.01(5)(g) 16., subpart (i) for the concentration of TRS.
2. The reference method listed in 1200-3-16-.01(5)(g) 3. for gas analysis, and
3. When determining compliance with part (4)(a)4. of this rule, use the results of Method 2, Method 16 or Method 16A, and the black liquor solids feed rate in the following equation to determine the TRS emission rate on an equivalent hydrogen sulfide (H2S) basis.

E = (CTRS)(F)(Qsd)/BLS

Where:

E = mass of TRS emitted per unit of black liquor solids (g/kg)(lb/ton)

CTRS = average combined concentration of TRS as determined by Method 16 or 16A during the test period, PPM.

F = 0.001417 g H2S/m3 PPM for metric units

0.08844 x2 10-6 lb H2S/ft3 PPM for English units

Qsd = dry volumetric stack gas flow rate corrected to standard conditions, dscm/hr (dscf/hr)

BLS = black liquor solids feed rate, kg/hr (ton/hr)

4. When determining whether a furnace is a straight kraft recovery furnace or a cross recovery furnace, TAPPI Method T.624 (note: All references to TAPPI refer to the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Dunwoody Park, Atlanta, Georgia 30341. Copies of the methods are available for purchase by writing TAPPI at the above address. Be sure and specify the desired method.) shall be used to determine sodium sulfide, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. These determinations shall be made three times daily from the green liquor and the daily average values shall be converted to sodium oxide (Na2O) and substituted into the following equation to determine the green liquor sulfidity:

GLS = 100 CNa2S/(CNa2S+CNaOH + CNa2 CO3 )

where:

GLS = percent green liquor sulfidity

CNa2S = average concentration of Na2S expressed as Na2O (mg/1)

CNaOH = average concentration of NaOH expressed as Na2O (mg/1)

CNa2C03 = average concentration of Na2CO3 expressed as Na2O(mg/l)

5. When determining compliance with subpart (4)(a)1.(vi) of this rule, use the results of Method 2, Method 16 or Method 16A, and the pulp production rate in the equation specified in part (6)(c)3. of this rule, except substitute the pulp production rate (PPR) (kg/hr (tons/hr)) for the black liquor solids feed rate (BLS).
(d) All concentrations of particulate matter and TRS required to be measured by this paragraph from lime kilns or incinerators shall be corrected 10 volume percent oxygen and those concentrations from recovery furnaces shall be corrected to 8 volume percent oxygen. These corrections shall be made in the manner specified in part (5)(c)3. of this rule.

Notes

Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1200-03-16-.29
Original rule filed August 28, 1979; effective October 12, 1979. Amendment filed September 4, 1981; effective October 30, 1981. Amendment filed September 21, 1988; effective November 6, 1988.

Authority: T.C.A. §§ 68-25-105.

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