Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1200-08-11-.12 - POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH CARE DECISION-MAKING

(1) Pursuant to this Rule, each home for the aged shall maintain and establish policies and procedures governing the designation of a health care decision-maker for making health care decisions for a resident who is incompetent or who lacks capacity, including but not limited to allowing the withholding of CPR measures from individual residents. An adult or emancipated minor may give an individual instruction. The instruction may be oral or written. The instruction may be limited to take effect only if a specified condition arises.
(2) An adult or emancipated minor may execute an advance directive for health care. The advance directive may authorize an agent to make any health care decision the resident could have made while having capacity, or may limit the power of the agent, and may include individual instructions. The effect of an advance directive that makes no limitation on the agent's authority shall be to authorize the agent to make any health care decision the resident could have made while having capacity.
(3) The advance directive shall be in writing, signed by the resident, and shall either be notarized or witnessed by two (2) witnesses. Both witnesses shall be competent adults, and neither of them may be the agent. At least one (1) of the witnesses shall be a person who is not related to the resident by blood, marriage, or adoption and would not be entitled to any portion of the estate of the resident upon the death of the resident. The advance directive shall contain a clause that attests that the witnesses comply with the requirements of this paragraph.
(4) Unless otherwise specified in an advance directive, the authority of an agent becomes effective only upon a determination that the resident lacks capacity, and ceases to be effective upon a determination that the resident has recovered capacity.
(5) A facility may use any advanced directive form that meets the requirements of the Tennessee Health Care Decisions Act or has been developed and issued by the Board for Licensing Health Care Facilities.
(6) A determination that a resident lacks or has recovered capacity, or that another condition exists that affects an individual instruction or the authority of an agent shall be made by the designated physician, who is authorized to consult with such other persons as he or she may deem appropriate.
(7) An agent shall make a health care decision in accordance with the resident's individual instructions, if any, and other wishes to the extent known to the agent. Otherwise, the agent shall make the decision in accordance with the resident's best interest. In determining the resident's best interest, the agent shall consider the resident's personal values to the extent known.
(8) An advance directive may include the individual's nomination of a court-appointed guardian.
(9) A health care facility shall honor an advance directive that is executed outside of this state by a nonresident of this state at the time of execution if that advance directive is in compliance with the laws of Tennessee or the state of the resident's residence.
(10) No health care provider or institution shall require the execution or revocation of an advance directive as a condition for being insured for, or receiving, health care.
(11) Any living will, durable power of attorney for health care, or other instrument signed by the individual, complying with the terms of Tennessee Code Annotated, Title 32, Chapter 11, and a durable power of attorney for health care complying with the terms of Tennessee Code Annotated, Title 34, Chapter 6, Part 2, shall be given effect and interpreted in accord with those respective acts. Any advance directive that does not evidence an intent to be given effect under those acts but that complies with these regulations may be treated as an advance directive under these regulations.
(12) A resident having capacity may revoke the designation of an agent only by a signed writing or by personally informing the supervising health care provider.
(13) A resident having capacity may revoke all or part of an advance directive, other than the designation of an agent, at any time and in any manner that communicates an intent to revoke.
(14) A decree of annulment, divorce, dissolution of marriage, or legal separation revokes a previous designation of a spouse as an agent unless otherwise specified in the decree or in an advance directive.
(15) An advance directive that conflicts with an earlier advance directive revokes the earlier directive to the extent of the conflict.
(16) Surrogates.
(a) An adult or emancipated minor may designate any individual to act as surrogate by personally informing the supervising health care provider. The designation may be oral or written.
(b) A surrogate may make a health care decision for a resident who is an adult or emancipated minor if and only if:
1. the resident has been determined by the designated physician to lack capacity, and
2. no agent or guardian has been appointed, or
3. the agent or guardian is not reasonably available.
(c) In the case of a resident who lacks capacity, the resident's surrogate shall be identified by the supervising health care provider and documented in the current clinical record of the facility at which the resident is receiving health care.
(d) The resident's surrogate shall be an adult who has exhibited special care and concern for the resident, who is familiar with the resident's personal values, who is reasonably available, and who is willing to serve.
(e) Consideration may be, but need not be, be given in order of descending preference for service as a surrogate to:
1. the resident's spouse, unless legally separated;
2. the resident's adult child;
3. the resident's parent;
4. the resident's adult sibling;
5. any other adult relative of the resident; or
6. any other adult who satisfies the requirements of 1200-08-11-.12(16)(d).
(f) No person who is the subject of a protective order or other court order that directs that person to avoid contact with the resident shall be eligible to serve as the resident's surrogate.
(g) The following criteria shall be considered in the determination of the person best qualified to serve as the surrogate:
1. Whether the proposed surrogate reasonably appears to be better able to make decisions either in accordance with the known wishes of the resident or in accordance with the resident's best interests;
2. The proposed surrogate's regular contact with the resident prior to and during the incapacitating illness;
3. The proposed surrogate's demonstrated care and concern;
4. The proposed surrogate's availability to visit the resident during his or her illness; and
5. The proposed surrogate's availability to engage in face-to-face contact with health care providers for the purpose of fully participating in the decision-making process.
(h) If the resident lacks capacity and none of the individuals eligible to act as a surrogate under 1200-08-11-.12(16)(c) thru 1200-08-11-.12(16)(g) is reasonably available, the designated physician may make health care decisions for the resident after the designated physician either:
1. Consults with and obtains the recommendations of a facility's ethics mechanism or standing committee in the facility that evaluates health care issues; or
2. Obtains concurrence from a second physician who is not directly involved in the resident's health care, does not serve in a capacity of decision-making, influence, or responsibility over the designated physician, and is not under the designated physician's decision-making, influence, or responsibility.
(i) In the event of a challenge, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that the selection of the surrogate was valid. Any person who challenges the selection shall have the burden of proving the invalidity of that selection.
(j) A surrogate shall make a health care decision in accordance with the resident's individual instructions, if any, and other wishes to the extent known to the surrogate. Otherwise, the surrogate shall make the decision in accordance with the surrogate's determination of the resident's best interest. In determining the resident's best interest, the surrogate shall consider the resident's personal values to the extent known to the surrogate.
(k) A surrogate who has not been designated by the resident may make all health care decisions for the resident that the resident could make on the resident's own behalf, except that artificial nutrition and hydration may be withheld or withdrawn for a resident upon a decision of the surrogate only when the designated physician and a second independent physician certify in the resident's current clinical records that the provision or continuation of artificial nutrition or hydration is merely prolonging the act of dying and the resident is highly unlikely to regain capacity to make medical decisions.
(l) Except as provided in 1200-08-11-.12(16)(m):
1. Neither the treating health care provider nor an employee of the treating health care provider, nor an operator of a health care institution nor an employee of an operator of a health care institution may be designated as a surrogate; and
2. A health care provider or employee of a health care provider may not act as a surrogate if the health care provider becomes the resident's treating health care provider.
(m) An employee of the treating health care provider or an employee of an operator of a health care institution may be designated as a surrogate if:
1. the employee so designated is a relative of the resident by blood, marriage, or adoption; and
2. the other requirements of this section are satisfied.
(n) A health care provider may require an individual claiming the right to act as surrogate for a resident to provide written documentation stating facts and circumstances reasonably sufficient to establish the claimed authority.
(17) Guardian.
(a) A guardian shall comply with the resident's individual instructions and may not revoke the resident's advance directive absent a court order to the contrary.
(b) Absent a court order to the contrary, a health care decision of an agent takes precedence over that of a guardian.
(c) A health care provider may require an individual claiming the right to act as guardian for a resident to provide written documentation stating facts and circumstances reasonably sufficient to establish the claimed authority.
(18) A designated physician who makes or is informed of a determination that a resident lacks or has recovered capacity, or that another condition exists which affects an individual instruction or the authority of an agent, guardian, or surrogate, shall promptly record the determination in the resident's current clinical record and communicate the determination to the resident, if possible, and to any person then authorized to make health care decisions for the resident.
(19) Except as provided in 1200-08-11-.12(20) thru 1200-08-11-.12(22), a health care provider or institution providing care to a resident shall:
(a) comply with an individual instruction of the resident and with a reasonable interpretation of that instruction made by a person then authorized to make health care decisions for the resident; and
(b) comply with a health care decision for the resident made by a person then authorized to make health care decisions for the resident to the same extent as if the decision had been made by the resident while having capacity.
(20) A health care provider may decline to comply with an individual instruction or health care decision for reasons of conscience.
(21) A health care institution may decline to comply with an individual instruction or health care decision if the instruction or decision is:
(a) contrary to a policy of the institution which is based on reasons of conscience, and
(b) the policy was timely communicated to the resident or to a person then authorized to make health care decisions for the resident.
(22) A health care provider or institution may decline to comply with an individual instruction or health care decision that requires medically inappropriate health care or health care contrary to generally accepted health care standards applicable to the health care provider or institution.
(23) A health care provider or institution that declines to comply with an individual instruction or health care decision pursuant to 1200-08-11-.12(20) thru 1200-08-11-.12(22) shall:
(a) promptly so inform the resident, if possible, and any person then authorized to make health care decisions for the resident;
(b) provide continuing care to the resident until a transfer can be effected or until the determination has been made that transfer cannot be effected;
(c) unless the resident or person then authorized to make health care decisions for the resident refuses assistance, immediately make all reasonable efforts to assist in the transfer of the resident to another health care provider or institution that is willing to comply with the instruction or decision; and
(d) if a transfer cannot be effected, the health care provider or institution shall not be compelled to comply.
(24) Unless otherwise specified in an advance directive, a person then authorized to make health care decisions for a resident has the same rights as the resident to request, receive, examine, copy, and consent to the disclosure of medical or any other health care information.
(25) A health care provider or institution acting in good faith and in accordance with generally accepted health care standards applicable to the health care provider or institution is not subject to civil or criminal liability or to discipline for unprofessional conduct for:
(a) complying with a health care decision of a person apparently having authority to make a health care decision for a resident, including a decision to withhold or withdraw health care;
(b) declining to comply with a health care decision of a person based on a belief that the person then lacked authority; or
(c) complying with an advance directive and assuming that the directive was valid when made and had not been revoked or terminated.
(26) An individual acting as an agent or surrogate is not subject to civil or criminal liability or to discipline for unprofessional conduct for health care decisions made in good faith.
(27) A person identifying a surrogate is not subject to civil or criminal liability or to discipline for unprofessional conduct for such identification made in good faith.
(28) A copy of a written advance directive, revocation of an advance directive, or designation or disqualification of a surrogate has the same effect as the original.
(29) The withholding or withdrawal of medical care from a resident in accordance with the provisions of the Tennessee Health Care Decisions Act shall not, for any purpose, constitute a suicide, euthanasia, homicide, mercy killing, or assisted suicide.
(30) Physician Orders for Scope of Treatment (POST)
(a) Physician Orders for Scope of Treatment (POST) may be issued by a physician for a patient with whom the physician has a bona fide physician-patient relationship, but only:
1. With the informed consent of the patient;
2. If the patient is a minor or is otherwise incapable of making an informed decision regarding consent for such an order, upon request of and with the consent of the agent, surrogate, or other person authorized to consent on the patient's behalf under the Tennessee Health Care Decisions Act; or
3. If the patient is a minor or is otherwise incapable of making an informed decision regarding consent for such an order and the agent, surrogate, or other person authorized to consent on the patient's behalf under the Tennessee Health Care Decisions Act, is not reasonably available, if the physician determines that the provision of cardio pulmonary resuscitation would be contrary to accepted medical standards.
(b) A POST may be issued by a physician assistant, nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist for a patient with whom such physician assistant, nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist has a bona fide physician assistant-patient or nurse-patient relationship, but only if:
1. No physician, who has a bona fide physician-patient relationship with the patient, is present and available for discussion with the patient (or if the patient is a minor or is otherwise incapable of making an informed decision, with the agent, surrogate, or other person authorized to consent on the patient's behalf under the Tennessee Health Care Decisions Act);
2. Such authority to issue is contained in the physician assistant's, nurse practitioner's or clinical nurse specialist's protocols;
3. Either:
(i) The patient is a resident of a nursing home licensed under title 68 or an ICF/MR facility licensed under title 33 and is in the process of being discharged from the nursing home or transferred to another facility at the time the POST is being issued; or
(ii) The patient is a hospital patient and is in the process of being discharged from the hospital or transferred to another facility at the time the POST is being issued; and
4. Either:
(i) With the informed consent of the patient;
(ii) If the patient is a minor or is otherwise incapable of making an informed decision regarding consent for such an order, upon request of and with the consent of the agent, surrogate, or other person authorized to consent on the patient's behalf under the Tennessee Health Care Decisions Act; or
(iii) If the patient is a minor or is otherwise incapable of making an informed decision regarding consent for such an order and the agent, surrogate, or other person authorized to consent on the patient's behalf under the Tennessee Health Care Decisions Act, is not reasonably available and such authority to issue is contained in the physician assistant, nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist's protocols and the physician assistant or nurse determines that the provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation would be contrary to accepted medical standards.
(c) If the patient is an adult who is capable of making an informed decision, the patient's expression of the desire to be resuscitated in the event of cardiac or respiratory arrest shall revoke any contrary order in the POST. If the patient is a minor or is otherwise incapable of making an informed decision, the expression of the desire that the patient be resuscitated by the person authorized to consent on the patient's behalf shall revoke any contrary order in the POST. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a patient for whom the physician or physician assistant or nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist determines cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not medically appropriate.
(d) A POST issued in accordance with this section shall remain valid and in effect until revoked. In accordance with this rule and applicable regulations, qualified emergency medical services personnel; and licensed health care practitioners in any facility, program, or organization operated or licensed by the Board for Licensing Health Care Facilities, the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, or the Department of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, or operated, licensed, or owned by another state agency, shall follow a POST that is available to such persons in a form approved by the Board for Licensing Health Care Facilities.
(e) Nothing in these rules shall authorize the withholding of other medical interventions, such as medications, positioning, wound care, oxygen, suction, treatment of airway obstruction or other therapies deemed necessary to provide comfort care or alleviate pain.
(f) If a person has a do-not-resuscitate order in effect at the time of such person's discharge from a health care facility, the facility shall complete a POST prior to discharge. If a person with a POST is transferred from one health care facility to another health care facility, the health care facility initiating the transfer shall communicate the existence of the POST to qualified emergency medical service personnel and to the receiving facility prior to the transfer. The transferring facility shall provide a copy of the POST that accompanies the patient in transport to the receiving health care facility. Upon admission, the receiving facility shall make the POST a part of the patient's record.
(g) These rules shall not prevent, prohibit, or limit a physician from using a written order, other than a POST, not to resuscitate a patient in the event of cardiac or respiratory arrest in accordance with accepted medical practices. This action shall have no application to any do not resuscitate order that is not a POST, as defined in these rules.
(h) Valid do not resuscitate orders or emergency medical services do not resuscitate orders issued before July 1, 2004, pursuant to then-current law, shall remain valid and shall be given effect as provided in these rules.

Notes

Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1200-08-11-.12
Original rule filed June 22, 1992; effective August 6, 1992. Repeal and new rule filed July 27, 2000; effective October 10, 2000. Amendment filed April 28, 2003; effective July 12, 2003. Amendment filed September 8, 2006; effective November 22, 2006. Amendment filed February 7, 2007; effective April 23, 2007. Amendments filed January 3, 2012; effective April 2, 2012. Amendments filed March 27, 2015; effective 6/25/2015.

Authority: T.C.A. ยงยง 4-5-202, 4-5-204, 68-11-202, 68-11-204, 68-11-206, 68-11-209, 68-11-224, and 68-11-1801 through 68-11-1815.

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