W. Va. Code R. § 64-77-5 - Source development

5.1. General. -- In selecting the source of water to be developed, the public water system's engineer shall prove to the satisfaction of the BPH that an adequate quantity of water will be available, and that the water that is to be delivered to the consumers will meet the current requirements of the rule of the Bureau for Public Health, Public Water Systems, 64CSR3, with respect to microbiological, physical, chemical and radiological qualities. Each water system shall take its raw water from the best available source that is economically reasonable and technically possible.
5.2. Surface Water System. -- A surface water source includes all tributary streams and drainage basins, natural lakes, artificial reservoirs or impoundments above the point of water system intake and ground water under the direct influence of surface water. A source water protection plan shall be adopted by the public water system for the continued protection of the watershed from potential sources of contamination.
5.2.a. Quantity. -- The quantity of water at the source: shall be adequate to meet the maximum projected water demand of the service area as shown by calculations based on a one in fifty year drought or the extreme drought of record; shall provide a reasonable surplus for anticipated growth; shall be adequate to compensate for all losses such as silting, evaporation, seepage, etc.; shall be adequate to provide ample water for other legal users of the source; and shall provide minimum six (6) months storage based on average daily demand for all drainage basins, natural lakes and artificial reservoirs or impoundments.
5.2.b. Quality. -- A sanitary survey and study shall be made of the factors, both natural and man- made, that may affect the quality of the surface water. This survey and study shall include, but not be limited to: determining possible future uses of impoundments or reservoirs; determining the degree of control of watershed by the owner; assessing the degree of hazard to the supply by accidental spillage of materials that may be toxic, harmful or detrimental to treatment processes; obtaining samples over a sufficient period of time to assess the microbiological, physical, chemical and radiological characteristics of the water; assessing the capability of the proposed treatment process to reduce contaminants to applicable standards; and consideration of currents, wind and ice conditions, and the effect of confluent streams.
5.2.c. Minimum Treatment. -- The design of the water treatment plant shall consider the worst conditions that may exist during the life of the facility. The minimum treatment required shall be determined by the BPH. Filtration preceded by pretreatment approved by the BPH shall be provided for all surface waters.
5.2.d. Structures.
5.2.d.1. Design of intake structures shall provide for: withdrawal of water from more than one level if quality varies with depth; separate facilities for release of less desirable water held in storage; where frazil ice may be a problem, holding the velocity of flow into the intake structure to a minimum, generally not to exceed 0.5 feet per second; inspection manholes every one thousand (1000) feet for pipe sizes large enough to permit visual inspection; periodic cleaning of the inlet line; and adequate protection against rupture by dragging anchors, ice, etc. Ports shall be located above the bottom of the stream, lake or impoundment, but at sufficient depth to be kept submerged at low water levels. Where shore wells are not provided, a diversion device shall be capable of keeping large quantities of fish or debris from entering an intake structure and of controlling zebra mussels where applicable.
5.2.d.2. Raw Water pumping wells shall: have electrical controls located above grade and above the one hundred (100) year flood elevation; be accessible; be designed against flotation; be equipped with removable or traveling screens before the pump suction well; provide for introduction of a disinfectant or other chemicals in the raw water transmission main if necessary for quality control; have intake valves and provisions for backflushing or cleaning by a mechanical device and testing for leaks, where practical; have provisions for withstanding surges where necessary and include provisions for adequate ventilation for maintenance personnel.
5.2.d.3. An off-stream reservoir is a facility where water is pumped during periods of good quality and high stream flow for future release to treatment facilities. These off-stream reservoirs shall be constructed to assure that: water quality is protected by controlling runoff into the reservoir; dikes are structurally sound and protected against wave action and erosion; intake structures and devices meet requirements of this section; point of influent flow is separated from the point of withdrawal; and separate pipes are provided for influent to and effluent from the reservoir.
5.2.e. Impoundments and reservoirs.
5.2.e.1. Site preparation shall provide, where applicable: for the removal of brush and trees to high water elevation; for protection from floods during construction; for the abandonment of all water wells that will be inundated, in accordance with requirements of the BPH; and for the abandonment of all oil and gas wells in accordance with WVDEP oil and gas regulations.
5.2.e.2. Construction may require: approval from the WVDEP of the safety features for stability and spillway design; a permit from the WVDEP for controlling stream flow or installing a structure on the bed of a stream or interstate waterway; a withdrawal permit; and a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers permit.
5.3. Groundwater System. -- A groundwater source includes all water obtained from drilled, bored or driven wells, infiltration lines, springs and approved mines.
5.3.a. Quantity.
5.3.a.1. Source Capacity. -- The total developed groundwater source capacity shall equal or exceed the design maximum daily demand. For systems serving five hundred (500) people or more, source capacity shall equal or exceed the design average daily demand with the largest producing well out of service.
5.3.a.2. Number of Sources. -- All community groundwater systems serving five hundred (500) or more people, shall provide a minimum of two (2) good sources of water with sufficient capacity so that with the largest producing source out of service the remaining source or sources can produce sufficient quantity to produce average daily demands.
5.3.a.3. All public water systems shall provide standby power if the system is treating greater than or equal to three (3) million gallons per day.
5.3.a.3.A. To ensure continuous service when the primary power has been interrupted, a power supply shall be provided through connection to at least two (2) independent public power sources, or portable or in-place auxiliary power.
5.3.a.3.B. When automatic pre-lubrication of pump bearings is necessary, and an auxiliary power supply is provided, the pre-lubrication line shall be provided with a valved bypass around the automatic control, or the automatic control shall be wired to the emergency power source.
5.3.b. Quality.
5.3.b.1. Microbiological Quality. -- Public water systems shall provide for disinfection of every new, modified or reconditioned groundwater source prior to use in accordance with AWWA Standard C655. Public water systems shall submit, after disinfection, in accordance with AWWA Standard C654, one (1) or more special purpose water samples to a State certified water quality laboratory for microbiological analysis with results reported to the BPH prior to placing the well into service. The BPH shall require the public water system to take samples to determine if a new groundwater source is under the direct influence of surface water, for all new groundwater sources (wells, springs, mines, etc.). The BPH shall establish the sampling parameters and make the determination. The sampling must be completed within one (1) year after the groundwater sources is in service.
5.3.b.2. Physical and Chemical Quality. -- Public water systems shall have every new groundwater source examined for all regulated primary and secondary contaminants by tests of a representative sample in a State certified water quality laboratory for drinking water, with the results reported to the BPH. Samples shall be collected at or near the conclusion of the test pumping procedure and examined as soon as practical. Field determinations of physical and chemical constituents or special sampling procedures may be required by the BPH.
5.3.c. Location.
5.3.c.1. Public water systems or their engineer shall consult with the BPH prior to design and construction regarding a proposed well location as it relates to required separation between existing and potential sources of contamination and groundwater development. The public water systems or their engineer shall provide a location map, a site map and an inventory of potential contamination activity sources within a two thousand (2000) foot radius of the proposed well location for community and non-community, non-transient public water systems and five hundred (500) foot radius of the proposed well location for transient public water systems. Under no circumstances shall the water well be located closer to sources of microbiological pollution or contamination than as provided in Table 64-77B of this rule.
5.3.c.2. Continued Protection. -- Public water systems shall provide continued protection of the well site from potential sources of contamination through the development of a wellhead protection program as approved by the BPH. Fencing of the site may be required by the BPH.
5.3.d. Testing and Records.
5.3.d.1. The public water system engineer or a West Virginia Certified Water Well Driller shall perform yield and drawdown tests on every production well after construction or subsequent treatment and prior to placement of the permanent pump; have the test methods clearly indicated in the project specifications; have a test pump capacity, at maximum anticipated drawdown, at least 1.5 times the quantity anticipated, and provide for continuous pumping for at least twenty-four (24) hours or until stabilized drawdown has continued for at least six (6) hours when test pumped at 1.5 times the design pumping rate for community and non-transient non-community public water supplies; and provide for continuous pumping for at least eight (8) hours for transient non-community public water supplies.
5.3.d.2. The public water system engineer or a West Virginia Certified Water Well Driller shall provide the following data to the BPH: test pump capacity-head characteristics; static water level; the depth of test pump setting; the time of starting, ending each test cycle and the zone of influence of the well or wells.
5.3.d.3. The public water system engineer or a West Virginia Certified Water Well Driller shall provide recordings and graphic evaluation of the following at one hour intervals or less as may be required by the BPH: pumping rate, pumping water level, drawdown, and water recovery rate and levels. The non-community transient water systems are not required to provide the graphic evaluation of pump test data.
5.3.d.4. The public water system engineer or a West Virginia Certified Water Well Driller shall provide an accurate geographical location such as latitude and longitude or GIS coordinates; determine the geological data from samples collected at five (5) foot intervals and at each pronounced change in formation; record the information and provide a report to the BPH; and be supplemented with information on accurate records of drill hole diameters and depths, assembled order of size and length of casing and liners, grouting depths, formations penetrated, water levels and location of any blast charges.
5.3.e. General Well Construction.
5.3.e.1. Wells shall be covered while unattended during construction. Drilling fluids and additives shall not impart any toxic substances to the water or promote bacterial contamination and shall have third party certification of conformance with ANSI/NSF Standard 60, Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals - Health Effects.
5.3.e.2. Minimum Protected Depths.
5.3.e.2.A. Minimum protected depths of drilled wells shall provide watertight construction to the depth required by the BPH to: exclude contamination; seal off formations that are, or may be, contaminated or yield undesirable water; and provide a minimum casing length as follows:
5.3.e.2.A.1. Ten (10) feet of casing in unconsolidated water bearing formations for wells that are thirty (30) feet deep or less if approved by the BPH;
5.3.e.2.A.2. Twenty (20) feet of casing in unconsolidated water bearing formations for wells that are deeper than thirty (30) feet; or
5.3.e.2.A.3. A minimum of twenty (20) feet of casing in bedrock wells with a minimum of five (5) feet of casing installed into unweathered bedrock. Unweathered bedrock is bedrock that is competent, hard, firmly-consolidated and unaltered by erosion or surficial weathering.
5.3.e.2.B. Other minimum protective depths of casing may be allowed upon the written approval of the BPH in special circumstances (i.e., the well supplies a surface water treatment plant).
5.3.e.3. Temporary Steel Casing. -- Temporary steel casing used for construction shall be capable of withstanding the structural load imposed during its installation and removal.
5.3.e.4. Permanent Steel Casing. -- Permanent steel casing pipe shall: be new steel casing pipe meeting AWWA Standard A-100, ASTM or API specifications for water well construction; have the minimum weights and thickness indicated in Table 64-77D of this rule; have additional thickness and weight if minimum thickness is not considered sufficient to assure the reasonable life expectancy of a well; be capable of withstanding forces to which it is subjected; be equipped with a commercial heat treated tempered drive shoe when driven; have full circumferential welds or threaded coupling joints for twelve (12) inch or less diameter wells. Wells with diameters larger than twelve (12) inch can use non-commercial materials for the drive shoes when driven and shall have full circumferential welds or threaded coupling joints;
5.3.e.5. Nonferrous Casing Materials. -- Nonferrous material proposed as a well casing: shall be resistant to the corrosiveness of the water and to the stresses to which it will be subjected during installation, grouting and operation; and shall comply with ANSI/NSF Standard 61, Water System Components - Health Effects.
5.3.e.6. Plastic Well Casing. -- Plastic well casings, liners, spline-lock mechanical joining systems, couplings and solvents shall be approved by the NSF Standard 14 and 61 and meet ASTM F 480. Temporary casing shall meet NSF Standard 61. Plastic well casing shall not be driven during the installation. Plastic well casing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. Evidence of compliance is the display of the NSF seal on each section of casing and liner. All plastic casing and liners shall have a wall thickness that will be of adequate thickness to prevent collapse due to hydrostatic pressure or temperature effects. The minimum wall thickness for plastic well casing shall have a standard dimension ratio (SDR) of 21 or heavier as governed by the ASTM F 480 standards. Plastic well liners shall meet a minimum SDR of 26.
5.3.e.7. Packers. -- Packers shall be of material that will not impart taste, odor, toxic substance or bacterial contamination to the well water. Lead packers are prohibited.
5.3.e.8. Screens. -- Screens shall: be constructed of materials resistant to damage by chemical action of groundwater or cleaning operations and have size of openings based on sieve analysis of formation or gravel pack materials; and have sufficient length and diameter to provide adequate specific capacity and low aperture entrance velocity. Usually the entrance velocity shall not exceed 0.1 feet per second. Screens shall be installed so that the pumping water level remains above the screen under all operating conditions. Where applicable, screens shall be designed and installed to permit removal or replacement without adversely affecting watertight construction of the well and be provided with a bottom plate or washdown bottom fitting of the same material as the screen. Only commercially manufactured screens designed for the intended purpose are permitted. Plastic well screens shall comply with the ANSI/NSF Standard 61 - Water System Components - Health Effects.
5.3.e.9. Grouting requirements.
5.3.e.9.A. The full length of the well casing shall be fully grouted from the lower terminus up to the ground surface, except as noted in parts 5.3.e.9.A.1 through 5.3.e.9.A.3 of this subparagraph.
5.3.e.9.A.1. When drilling through caves, mines or other cavities, the lower portion of the casing shall be grouted in accordance with a method described in this section and a packer or similar bridging device may be used to permit grouting from the top of the cavity.
5.3.e.9.A.2. In unconsolidated aquifers (i.e., sand and gravel) above bedrock, the permanent casing shall be grouted.
5.3.e.9.A.3. In cases where a pitless adaptor is to be installed, upward grouting may terminate at the level of the pitless adapter.
5.3.e.9.B. Grout shall be neat cement, bentonite and cement mixtures, or bentonite. Other materials require the written approval of the BPH. The neat cement, bentonite and cement mixtures, and bentonite shall be mixed according to the manufacturer's specifications. Drilling muds shall not be used for grouting. Water used shall be fresh (not saline) and uncontaminated. A neat cement grout shall consist of cement and water with not more than six (6) gallons of water per ninety-four (94) pound sack of cement.
5.3.e.9.C. All public water system water wells shall be installed with an annular space seal between the casing and borehole, that hardens or forms a seal to prevent the entrance of water from sources other than the aquifers selected.
5.3.e.9.C.1. When grouting below the water level, grout shall be installed by a positive displacement method, placed from the bottom up. Grout material shall be placed by a positive displacement such as pumping or forced injection by air or hydraulic pressure. Grout shall be injected in the annular space between the inner casing and either the outer casing or the borehole. In wells where the outer casing is left in place, a dry bentonite shall be used while driving the casing.
5.3.e.9.C.2. When grouting above the water level, the annular space shall be a minimum of one and a half (1.5) inches for grout and a positive displacement method, placed from the bottom up, is the preferred method for grouting. The gravity placement method may be used for grouting not to exceed thirty (30) feet. Bentonite chips, pellets or granules with a diameter of three-eighths of an inch (3/8) or less, or neat cement shall either be poured freely down the borehole or added through a tremie pipe to seal the annular space. As the bentonite material is poured into the hole, bridging may occur. A tamper or a weighted line may be necessary to tamp the bentonite material into place.
5.3.e.9.C.3. When underreaming is used to set permanent casing in unconsolidated materials, either a dry or wet bentonite slurry shall be used at the ground surface while the casing is being installed. Upon termination of casing in unweathered bedrock and removal of the underreamer, bentonite or neat cement shall be placed in the bottom of the casing by a positive displacement or gravity placement method before casing is set in bedrock. All other methods require the written approval of the BPH.
5.3.e.9.C.4. If rapid loss of grout material occurs during emplacement, coarse fill material (e.g., sand, gravel, crushed stone or dry cement) may be used in the zones in which the loss is occurring. The remainder of the annular space shall be grouted as provided in this section.
5.3.e.9.C.5. If the annular space cannot be grouted in accordance with this section, alternative methods subject to prior written approval by the BPH may be considered.
5.3.e.10. Upper Terminal Well Construction. -- Permanent casing for all groundwater sources shall project at least twelve (12) inches above the pumphouse floor or at least twelve (12) inches above the final ground surface. Where a well house is constructed, the floor surface shall be at least six (6) inches above the final ground elevation. Sites subject to flooding shall be provided with an earth mound to raise the pumphouse floor to an elevation at least two (2) feet above the highest known flood elevation, or other suitable protection as determined by the BPH. The top of the well casing at sites subject to flooding shall terminate at least three (3) feet above the one hundred (100) year flood level or the highest known flood elevation, whichever is higher, or as the BPH directs. If the three (3) feet above the one hundred (100) year flood elevation or the highest known flood elevation requirement is not practical, the well shall be protected from flood waters entering the well and contaminating the aquifer.
5.3.e.11. Development. -- Every well shall be developed to remove the native silts and clays, drilling mud or finer fraction of the gravel pack. Development shall continue until the maximum specific capacity is obtained from the completed well. Where chemical conditioning is required, the specifications shall include provisions for the method, equipment, chemicals, testing for residual chemicals, and disposal of waste and inhibitors. Where blasting procedures may be used, the specifications shall include the provisions for blasting and cleaning. Special attention shall be given to assure that the grouting and casing are not damaged by the blasting.
5.3.e.12. Capping Requirements. -- All caps shall be Water Systems Council approved. All caps in the 100 year flood plain shall be water tight. All caps above the 100 year flood plain shall, as a minimum, be vector (insects, rodents, snakes, etc.) proof. At all times during the progress of work, the West Virginia Certified Water Well Driller shall provide protection to prevent tampering with the well or entrance of foreign materials.
5.3.e.13. Well Abandonment. -- When a public water system water well is to be abandoned, the work is to be performed by a West Virginia Certified Water Well Driller. The preferred method of abandonment involves casing removal. The borehole shall be completely sealed to reduce concern about channeling in the annular space or inadequate seals between casing and grout. When the casing is removed and the borehole is unstable, grout shall be simultaneously emplaced as the casing is "pulled" to prevent collapse of the borehole and an inadequate seal; however, if the casing is left in place, the casing shall be completely pressure grouted to reduce the possibility of annular channeling. All pumps, wiring, pipes, valves, accessories and hardware shall be removed prior to abandonment. The requirements herein pertain to wells and test holes in consolidated and unconsolidated formations. Each well abandonment shall be considered as an individual problem. Methods and materials are to be selected only after careful consideration of casing material, casing condition, the diameter of the casing, quality and quantity of the original grout seal, the depth of the well, well plumbness, hydrogeologic setting, level of contamination and the zones where contamination occurs. All abandonment procedures shall prohibit groundwater contamination.
5.3.e.13.A. All wells to be abandoned shall be completely filled. The public water system's engineer or a West Virginia Certified Water Well Driller shall provide procedures and quantities of material used for water well abandonment to the BPH within thirty (30) days after abandonment.
5.3.e.13.B. Wells in Unconsolidated Formations. -- In water-bearing formations consisting of coarse gravel, and when producing wells are located nearby, care shall be taken to select sealing materials that will not affect the producing wells. Concrete may be used if the producing wells can be shut down for a sufficient time to allow the concrete to set. Clean, disinfected sand or gravel may also be used as fill material at the water-bearing formation elevations. The remainder of the well, especially the upper portion, shall be filled with clay, concrete, grout, or neat cement to exclude surface water. The latter method, using clay as the upper sealing material, is especially applicable to abandoned wells with a diameter greater than ten (10) inches. In gravel-packed gravel-envelope, or other wells in which coarse material has been added around the inner casing to within twenty (20) to thirty (30) feet of the surface, sealing outside the casing is very important. Sometimes this sealing may require removal of the gravel or perforation of the casing.
5.3.e.13.C. Wells in Creviced Formations. -- Abandoned wells that penetrate limestone or other creviced or channelized rock formations shall be filled with concrete, grout or neat cement to insure permanence of the seal. The use of clay or sand is not desirable because fine-grained fill material may be displaced by the flow of water through crevices of channels. Alternating layers of coarse stone and concrete may be used for fill material through the water producing horizon if limited vertical movement of water in the formation will not affect the quality or quantity in producing wells. Only concrete, neat cement or grout shall be used in this type of well. The portion of the well between a point ten (10) to twenty (20) feet below and a point ten (10) to twenty (20) feet above the creviced formation shall be sealed and a plug of sealing material formed above the creviced formation.
5.3.f. Source Types and Construction Methods. -- Special Conditions.
5.3.f.1. Radial Water Collector. -- Locations of all caisson construction joints and porthole assemblies shall be indicated. The caisson wall shall be reinforced to withstand the forces to which it will be subjected. Radial collectors shall be in areas and at depths approved by the BPH. Provisions shall be made to assure that radial collectors are horizontal. The top of the caisson shall be covered with a watertight floor or be above the 100 year flood elevation. All openings in the floor shall be curbed and protected from the entrance of foreign material. Commercially available watertight wall sleeves shall be used if the pump discharge piping is placed through the caisson walls.
5.3.f.2. Infiltration Lines. -- Infiltration lines may be considered only where geological conditions preclude the possibility of developing an acceptable drilled well. The area around infiltration lines shall be under the control of the water purveyor for a distance acceptable to or required by the BPH. Flow in the lines shall be by gravity to the collecting well.
5.3.f.3. Naturally Flowing Wells. -- Flow from naturally flowing wells shall be controlled. Permanent casing and grout shall be provided. If erosion of the confining bed appears likely, special protective construction may be required by the BPH.
5.3.f.4. Springs and Mine Openings. -- Springs and mine openings, when used as a source point, shall be protected from the entry of surface water and foreign objects and shall be housed in a permanent structure.
5.3.g. Well Pumps, Discharge Piping and Appurtenances.
5.3.g.1. Line shaft pumps. -- Wells equipped with line shaft pumps shall: have the pump structure firmly connected to the casing or have the casing inserted into a recess extending at least one-half (2) inch into the pump base; have the pump foundation and base designed to prevent water from coming into contact with the joint.
5.3.g.2. Submersible pumps. -- Where a submersible pump is used, the top of the casing shall be effectively sealed against the entrance of water under all conditions of vibration or movement of conductors or cables, and the electrical cable shall be firmly attached to the riser pipe at intervals of twenty (20) feet or less.
5.3.g.3. Discharge piping. -- The discharge piping shall: be designed so that the friction loss will be low; have control valves and appurtenances located above the pumphouse floor when an above-ground discharge is provided; be protected against the entrance of contamination; and be equipped with a check valve, a shutoff valve, a pressure gauge, a means of measuring flow, and a smooth nosed sampling tap located at a point where positive pressure is maintained. Where applicable, discharge piping shall be equipped with an air release-vacuum relief valve located upstream from the check valve, with exhaust/relief piping terminating in a down-turned position at least eighteen (18) inches above the floor and covered with a twenty-four (24) mesh corrosion resistant screen. Discharge piping: shall be valved to permit test pumping and control of each well; shall have all exposed piping, valves and appurtenances protected against physical damage and freezing; shall be properly anchored to prevent movement; and shall be protected against a surge or water hammer. The discharge piping shall be provided with a means of pumping the discharge directly to waste but shall not be directly connected to a sewer.
5.3.g.4. Pitless Well Units. -- The BPH shall be contacted by the public water system or its engineer for approval of specific applications of pitless units. Pitless units shall: be threaded or welded to the well casing; be of watertight construction throughout; be of materials and weight at least equivalent and compatible to the casing; have field connection to the lateral discharge from the pitless unit of threaded, flanged or mechanical joint connection; terminate at least twelve (12) inches above final ground elevation or three (3) feet above the one hundred (100) year flood level or as the BPH directs. If the three (3) feet above the one hundred (100) year flood elevation requirement is not practical, the well shall be protected from flood waters entering the well and contaminating the aquifer. The pitless unit installation shall consist of either a pitless well unit or pitless well adapter and well cap. The pitless unit shall be approved by the NWSC, NGWA or equivalent. If a field weld connection is made, the pitless well unit shall be specifically approved by the manufacturer for such welding. The only field welding permitted is that required to attach the pitless well unit and appurtenances to the casing.
5.3.g.4.A. The design of the pitless unit shall make provisions for: access to disinfect the well; a properly constructed casing vent meeting the requirements specified in this rule; facilities to measure water levels in the well; a cover at the upper terminus of the well that will prevent contamination; a contamination-proof entrance connection for electrical cable; and an inside diameter as great as that of the well casing, up to and including casing diameters of twelve (12) inches, to facilitate work and repair on the well, pump, or well screen. If the three (3) feet above the one hundred (100) year flood elevation requirement is not practical, the well shall be protected from flood waters entering the well and contaminating the aquifer.
5.3.g.5. Casing Vent. -- The public water system or a West Virginia Certified Water Well Driller shall make provisions for venting the well casing to the atmosphere. The pipe connecting the casing to the vent shall be of adequate size to provide rapid venting of the casing. For installations in the 100 year flood plain, refer to paragraph 5.3.e.12 of this rule.
5.3.g.6. Water level measurement. -- The public water system or a West Virginia Certified Water Well Driller shall make provisions for periodic measurement of water levels in the completed well for community and non-community, non-transient public water systems. Where pneumatic water level measuring equipment is used, the measurement shall be made using corrosion resistant materials attached firmly to the drop pipe or pump column and in such a manner as to prevent entrance of foreign materials.
5.3.g.7. Observation wells shall: be constructed in accordance with the requirements for permanent wells if they are to remain in service after completion of a water supply well; and be protected at the upper terminus to preclude entrance of foreign materials.


W. Va. Code R. § 64-77-5

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