Wis. Admin. Code Department of Natural Resources § NR 504.09 - Storm water management and miscellaneous design and construction criteria for landfills
(1) STORM WATER MANAGEMENT.
(a) Storm water drainage ditches, structures and sedimentation basins shall be designed such that the construction of these items shall occur during the initial stage of construction to control rainfall runoff and limit entrained sediment from reaching surface water bodies.
(b) All landfills shall incorporate the following concepts in the design of both temporary and permanent erosion and sediment control measures:
1. Grading and construction shall be scheduled to minimize soil exposure.
2. Existing vegetation shall be retained whenever feasible.
3. Disturbed areas shall be vegetated and mulched.
4. Runoff shall be diverted away from disturbed areas and active fill areas.
5. Runoff velocities shall be minimized.
6. Drainageways and outlets shall be prepared to handle concentrated or increased runoff.
7. Sediment shall be trapped on site.
8. Runoff control structures shall be inspected and maintained.
(c) The design calculations required in pars. (d), (e) and (f) shall each be performed for the period in the landfill's development where the combination of surface conditions and contributing acreage would result in the greatest runoff volume.
(d) All temporary and permanent storm water drainage ditches, swales, conveyance channels, channel linings, outlet protection, culverts and other storm water control structures handling flow onto or off the landfill shall be designed to accommodate peak flow rates from a 25 year, time of concentration storm event.
(e) Temporary and permanent sediment control measures shall be designed to settle 0.015 mm size particles for all storms up to and including the 25 year, 6-hour storm. The surface area for sediment basins shall be calculated using the rainfall intensity over the 25 year, 6-hour storm event for the landfill. Principal spillways, and outlet protection for sediment basins shall be designed to pass a 25 year, time of concentration storm event. Emergency spillways for sedimentation basins shall be designed to pass a 100 year, time of concentration storm event. The design of the dewatering structures for sediment basins shall be selected such that the basin is dewatered in no less than 3 days. An analysis shall be performed to document compliance with this requirement.
(f) Storm water shall be diverted away from the active fill area of the landfill and any borrow areas to a sedimentation control structure.
(g) Containment berms placed around active fill areas shall be designed to control and collect the liquid volume resulting from the 25 year, 24-hour storm event. The design shall consider the volume of liquid generated from active fill areas which shall include areas with exposed solid waste or areas with waste covered by daily cover. Storm water in contact with active fill areas shall be handled and treated as leachate in accordance with ch. NR 506.
(h) Storm water drainage ditches, structures and sedimentation basins shall discharge along existing drainage patterns capable of accepting the anticipated flow volume. An analysis shall be performed to determine the amount and velocity of runoff prior to landfill development and to document compliance with this requirement.
(i) Storm water diversion and construction at a landfill shall be designed to minimize impacts on adjacent property, such as erosion, sedimentation and flooding.
(j) Design of all storm water management features shall comply with other applicable requirements of the department. Such requirements include, but are not limited to, ch. NR 103, and permits required by ch. 30, Stats.
(2) MISCELLANEOUS. All landfills shall be designed to meet the following requirements:
(a) A method of controlling any dust or windblown debris shall be included in the landfill design. The factors which will be considered by the department when evaluating alternative provisions for controlling dust and windblown debris includes the remoteness of the landfill, natural screening, windbreaks and waste types.
(b) Access to the landfill shall be restricted through the use of fencing, natural barriers or other methods approved in writing by the department.
(c) All access roads for the landfill, including those leading to the active area, shall be designed for all weather operation.
(d) All access roads which are used by over the highway vehicles shall be designed with a maximum grade no greater than 10%. The intersection of the landfill access road with an existing highway shall be designed to provide sufficient sight distance and minimum interference with traffic on the highway.
(f) A minimum separation distance of 100 feet shall be maintained between the limits of filling and adjacent property line. A minimum distance of 50 feet shall be maintained between any permanent berms or excavations associated with the landfill, excluding storm water diversion structures and the adjacent property line.
(g) The landfill shall be designed so that final grades in each phase are reached as soon as possible, and the open area used for refuse filling is minimized.
(h) The final slopes of all landfills shall be equal to or greater than 5%, but may not exceed 4 horizontal to one vertical. Landfills primarily designed for the acceptance of papermill or wastewater treatment plant sludge shall have final slopes no greater than 6 horizontal to one vertical.
(i) A minimum of 2 leachate head wells shall be proposed for each major horizontal phase of the landfill unless otherwise approved by the department.
(j) All landfills which accept municipal solid waste shall be supplied with a weight scale.
(k) All landfills shall be designed with properly protected permanent benchmarks for horizontal and vertical control. Elevations shall be tied to USGS datum and horizontal control shall be referenced to the property boundary.
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