Wis. Admin. Code Department of Natural Resources § NR 504.095 - Design criteria for landfills that recirculate leachate
(1) GENERAL. Leachate recirculation systems shall be designed to meet the following requirements:
(a) Leachate recirculation shall be limited to municipal solid waste landfills that are designed with a composite liner and leachate collection system meeting the minimum requirements of s. NR 504.06.
(b) Leachate recirculation shall be limited to areas of the landfill where the leachate collection drainage blanket has a hydraulic conductivity of 1 cm/sec or greater. The department may approve leachate recirculation in existing cells with lower permeability leachate collection blankets, provided that the operator can demonstrate that the maximum leachate head on the liner can be maintained at less than 12 inches and that the recorded leachate head has not exceeded 12 inches in the past.
(c) Leachate shall be recirculated only in areas of the landfill which are connected to the active gas extraction systems and are capable of collecting the additional gas expected to be generated. Active gas extraction shall commence in those areas no later than the initiation of leachate recirculation.
(d) Leachate recirculation distribution systems may not discharge leachate within 100 lateral feet of the exterior sideslope final grades unless otherwise approved by the department in writing.
(e) A minimum depth of 20 feet of waste shall be maintained between the landfill base and lowest point of leachate distribution.
(f) Operating controls and instructions for leachate recirculation distribution systems shall be prepared to apply to operations expected to be encountered in all weather and seasons. Instructions shall include cessation of leachate recirculation upon discovery of seeps and other surface expressions of recirculated leachate, excessive pressures within the waste mass, saturated conditions in the waste mass, inadequate shear strength of the waste mass or other conditions indicative of instability.
(2) SURFACE APPLICATION. In addition to the general requirements, surface application systems for leachate recirculation shall meet the following requirements:
(a) The leachate distribution system shall be designed so that leachate is not introduced into the waste in a manner that causes ponding or surface runoff of leachate. Open surface trenches or ponds shall not be utilized.
(b) The leachate distribution system shall be designed to minimize evaporation of the leachate and volatilization of compounds in leachate. The leachate distribution system shall be designed to distribute the leachate in a manner that results in its absorption into the waste mass after application. Spray irrigation systems that are designed to promote evaporation may not be utilized.
(3) VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. Vertical distribution systems for leachate recirculation shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Wells designed solely for the gas extraction system shall not be used for leachate recirculation.
(b) Vertical distribution systems shall utilize vertical wells placed into the waste mass. Distribution well design need not comply with the requirements of s. NR 504.08(1) or ch. NR 141 or 812. Well spacing shall be determined based on leachate flow rates, pumping characteristics, permeability of the waste mass, and ability of the waste to accept liquid without being pressurized.
(c) Leachate distribution wells shall be designed with a surface seal to control odors and landfill gas.
(d) Pumping pressures and pumping intervals for distribution wells shall be designed to prevent surface emergence of leachate. Pumping pressures and hydrostatic pressures shall be limited to prevent excessive pressures to prevent separation of waste layers or short-circuiting of leachate to the leachate collection system.
(e) The leachate distribution system shall be designed to achieve a uniform distribution of leachate throughout the zone of influence of the wells.
(f) Leachate distribution wells may be designed to also extract landfill gas.
(4) HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. Horizontal distribution systems shall meet the following requirements:
(a) The leachate distribution piping shall be designed to distribute the leachate consistently along its length.
(b) Distribution systems shall be designed with a permeable bedding material that is capable of rapidly dissipating recirculated leachate into the waste mass.
(c) Distributions systems shall be designed with bedding material which is capable of maintaining its structure and characteristics during the expected operational life of the system.
(d) Distribution systems shall be designed to operate with specific distribution periods with landfill gas extracted in the interval between those distribution periods, unless otherwise approved by the department in writing. The length of the leachate distribution periods and the intervals of gas extraction shall be determined in a manner that minimizes uncontrolled landfill gas emissions.
(e) Pumping pressures and pumping intervals shall be designed to prevent surface emergence of leachate. Pumping pressures shall be limited to prevent excessive pressures to prevent separation of waste layers or seeps or other leachate discharges.
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