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Rule 152. Oral Findings of Fact or Opinion

(a) General: Except in actions for declaratory judgment or for disclosure (see Titles XXI and XXII), the Judge, or the Special Trial Judge in any case in which the Special Trial Judge is authorized to make the decision of the Court pursuant to Code section 7436 (c) or 7443A (b)(2), (3), or (4), and (c), may, in the exercise of discretion, orally state the findings of fact or opinion if the Judge or Special Trial Judge is satisfied as to the factual conclusions to be reached in the case and that the law to be applied thereto is clear.
(b) Transcript: Oral findings of fact or opinion shall be recorded in the transcript of the trial. The pages of the transcript that contain such findings of fact or opinion (or a written summary thereof) shall be served by the Clerk upon all parties.
(c) Citation: Opinions stated orally in accordance with paragraph (a) of this Rule shall not be cited or relied upon as precedent. However, such opinions (including findings of fact) may be referred to for purposes of the application of the doctrine of res judicata, collateral estoppel, or law of the case.
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