(Pub. L. 96–350, § 3, Sept. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1160; Pub. L. 99–570, title III, § 3202, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–95; Pub. L. 99–640, § 17, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3552; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, § 7402, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4483; Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, § 1203, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4830; Pub. L. 104–324, title XI, § 1138, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3988; Pub. L. 107–295, title IV, § 418(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2123.)

References in Text

Presidential Proclamation 7219 of September 2, 1999, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(F), is set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.
The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (i), is Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1236, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 13 (§ 801 et seq.) of Title 21, Food and Drugs. Section 802 of Title 21 contains provisions relating to definitions used in title II (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.


Section was formerly classified to section 955c of Title 21, Food and Drugs.


2002—Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 107–295 added subpar. (F).
1996—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–324, § 1138(a)(2), substituted “and is conclusively” for “and may be” in closing provisions.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–324, § 1138(a)(3), (b), in closing provisions, inserted “or (C)” after “under subparagraph (A)” and substituted “nation is conclusively” for “nation may be”.
Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–324, § 1138(a)(1), added subpar. (C).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–324, § 1138(a)(4), inserted “Any person charged with a violation of this section shall not have standing to raise the claim of failure to comply with international law as a basis for a defense.” before “A claim of failure”.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–324, § 1138(a)(5), inserted at end “Jurisdiction of the United States with respect to vessels subject to this chapter is not an element of any offense. All jurisdictional issues arising under this chapter are preliminary questions of law to be determined solely by the trial judge.”
1990—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “shall be subject to the same penalties as those” for “is punishable by imprisonment or fine, or both, which may not exceed the maximum punishment”.
1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–690, § 7402(a), inserted “or who is a citizen of the United States or a resident alien of the United States on board any vessel,” after “jurisdiction of the United States,”.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–690, § 7402(b), inserted “and a claim of nationality or registry for the vessel is made by the master or individual in charge at the time of the enforcement action by an officer or employee of the United States authorized to enforce applicable provisions of United States law” after “High Seas”.
1986—Pub. L. 99–570 and Pub. L. 99–640 generally amended section in substantially identical manner, substituting provisions relating to manufacture, distribution, or possession with intent to manufacture or distribute controlled substances on board vessels for provisions relating to attempt or conspiracy.