Source(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, § 32 as added Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, title III, § 304, as added Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 83, § 1, 60 Stat. 50; amended Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 878, § 2, 60 Stat. 930; Aug. 5, 1947, ch. 499, § 2, 61 Stat. 784; Sept. 29, 1950, ch. 1108, § 1, 64 Stat. 1080; Mar. 23, 1951, ch. 15, title II, § 201(a), (b), 65 Stat. 23; June 6, 1952, ch. 372, 66 Stat. 129; Aug. 23, 1954, ch. 830, § 1, 68 Stat. 767; Pub. L. 87–846, title II, § 204(a), Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1114.)
References in Text
The Renegotiation Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(4) and (b), is act Apr. 28, 1942, ch. 247, title IV, § 403, 56 Stat. 245, as amended, which enacted section 1191 of this Appendix, and which was omitted from the Code.
Act of October 31, 1942 (56 Stat. 1013; 35 U.S.C. §§ 89 to 96), referred to in subsecs. (a)(4) and (c), is act Oct. 31, 1942, ch. 634, 56 Stat. 1013, which enacted sections 89 to 96 of former Title 35, Patents, and which was omitted from the Code.
Section 2 of said Act, referred to in subsec. (c), means section 2 of act Oct. 31, 1942, ch. 634, 56 Stat. 1013, which enacted section 90 of former Title 35, Patents, and which was omitted from the Code.
Date of enactment of this amendment, referred to in subsec. (h), probably means date of enactment of Pub. L. 87–846, which was approved Oct. 22, 1962.
Section was formerly classified to section 619 of this Appendix.
1962—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 87–846 permitted application for designation as successor organization to be made within three months after Oct. 22, 1962, required payments in sum of $500,000 to be made from the War Claims Fund before expiration of one year from Oct. 22, 1962, provided for allocation of funds to multiple successor organizations and acceptance of payments as discharge of all claims, and eliminated provisions deeming a successor organization as successor in interest by operation of law, respecting time for making return to such organizations, limiting the return to $3,000,000, requiring filing of notice of claim before expiration of one year from Aug. 23, 1954, for transfer of property to eligible persons, and declaring that filing of notice of claim would not bar payment of debt claims under section 34 of this Appendix.
1954—Subsec. (h). Act Aug. 23, 1954, added subsec. (h).
1952—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Act June 6, 1952, increased from $5,000,000 to $9,000,000 the limitation on amount of property which may be returned to nationals.
1950—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Act Sept. 29, 1950, clarified authority of Alien Property Custodian to return vested property to a person who possessed American citizenship at all times since Dec. 7, 1941, despite concurrent enemy citizenship and residence in enemy territory, and authorized return of vested property to American women who lost their citizenship solely because of marriage, and who have reacquired their citizenship prior to Sept. 29, 1950.
1947—Subsec. (a)(2). Act Aug. 5, 1947, provided that returns shall not be made to any owner, legal representative, or successor in interest, of the Governments of Germany, Japan, Rumania, Bulgaria, or Hungary; or to corporations or associations organized under the laws of such countries; or to an individual voluntarily resident in such countries at any time since Dec. 7, 1941; or to an individual who was at any time after Dec. 7, 1941, a citizen or subject of such country and present in the territory of such nation.
1946—Subsec. (a)(2)(C), (D). Act Aug. 8, 1946, inserted provisos in subdivs. (C) and (D).
Change of Name
Tax Court of the United States redesignated United States Tax Court pursuant to Pub. L. 91–172, title IX, § 951, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 730. See section 7441 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.
Transfer of Functions
War Contracts Price Adjustment Board abolished and powers, functions, and duties conferred upon Board by the Renegotiation Act, section 1191 of this Appendix, except those transferred to Administrator of General Services, transferred to Renegotiation Board by section 201(a), (b) of act Mar. 23, 1951, which was classified to section 1231 (a), (b) of this Appendix. Renegotiation Board terminated and all property, including records, of Board transferred to Administrator of General Services on Mar. 31, 1979, pursuant to Pub. L. 95–431, title V, § 501, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1043, and sections 1191 and 1231 of this Appendix were omitted from the Code.
Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.
Purpose of Act August 5, 1947
Congress in enacting act Aug. 5, 1947, outlined the purpose of the act as follows:
“Whereas article 79 of the Treaty of Peace with Italy, signed at Paris on February 10, 1947, grants to the Allied and Associated Powers the right to seize and retain ‘all property rights and interests which on the coming into force of the present treaty are within its territory and belong to Italy or to Italian nationals, and to apply such property or the proceeds thereof to such purposes as it may desire, within the limits of its claims and those of its nationals against Italy or Italian nationals, including debts, other than claims fully satisfied under other articles of the present treaty’ and further provides that ‘All Italian property, or the proceeds thereof, in excess of the amount of such claims, shall be returned’; and
“Whereas, pursuant to article 79 of the treaty of peace, negotiations have been entered into between the Governments of the United States and of Italy looking toward an agreement under which, upon the return of property, formerly Italian, in the United States, Italy will place at the disposal of the United States funds to be used in meeting certain claims of nationals of the United States; and
“Whereas, for the purpose of carrying out such agreement, it is desirable to authorize, in accordance with the procedures provided for in section 32 of the Trading With the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 411), as amended [this section], return to Italy or citizens or subjects of Italy, or corporations or associations organized under the laws of Italy, of property vested in or transferred to the United States or its agencies; and
“Whereas, for the purpose of aiding the revival of the Italian economy and establishing it on a self-sustaining basis, it is desirable that there be returned or transferred to Italy those Italian vessels acquired by the United States after December 7, 1941, for use in the war effort and now owned by the United States and vessels of a total tonnage approximately equal to the tonnage of those Italian vessels seized by the United States after September 1, 1939, and lost while being employed in the United States war effort.”
Return of Italian Property
Section 1 of act Aug. 5, 1947, provided: “That the President, or such officer or agency as he may designate, is hereby authorized to return, in accordance with the procedures provided for in section 32 of the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended [this section], any property or interest, or the net proceeds thereof, which has been, since December 18, 1941, vested in or transferred to any officer or agency of the United States pursuant to the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], and which immediately prior to such vesting or transfer was the property or interest of Italy or a citizen or subject of Italy, or a corporation or association organized under the laws of Italy.”
Transfer of Vessels to Italian Government
Section 4 of act Aug. 5, 1947, provided: “The President is authorized upon such terms as he deems necessary (a) to transfer to the Government of Italy all vessels which were under Italian registry and flag on September 1, 1939, and were thereafter acquired by the United States and are now owned by the United States; and (b) with respect to any vessel under Italian registry and flag on September 1, 1939, and subsequently seized in United States ports and thereafter lost while being employed in the United States war effort, to transfer to the Government of Italy surplus merchant vessels of the United States of a total tonnage approximately equal to the total tonnage of the Italian vessels lost: Provided, That no monetary compensation shall be paid either for the use by the United States or its agencies of former Italian vessels so acquired or seized or for the return or transfer of such vessels or substitute vessels.”
Executive Order No. 10587
Ex. Ord. No. 10587, Jan. 13, 1955, 20 F.R. 361, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11086, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1833, which designated the Jewish Restitution Successor Organization as successor in interest to deceased persons under subsec. (h) of this section and delegated to the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission the functions provided for in subsec. (h) of this section, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.
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