§ 2403. General provisions
(a) Types of licenses
Under such conditions as may be imposed by the Secretary which are consistent with the provisions of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], the Secretary may require any of the following types of export licenses:
(1) A validated license, authorizing a specific export, issued pursuant to an application by the exporter.
(2) Validated licenses authorizing multiple exports, issued pursuant to an application by the exporter, in lieu of an individual validated license for each such export, including, but not limited to, the following:
(A) A distribution license, authorizing exports of goods to approved distributors or users of the goods in countries other than controlled countries, except that the Secretary may establish a type of distribution license appropriate for consignees in the People’s Republic of China. The Secretary shall grant the distribution license primarily on the basis of the reliability of the applicant and foreign consignees with respect to the prevention of diversion of goods to controlled countries. The Secretary shall have the responsibility of determining, with the assistance of all appropriate agencies, the reliability of applicants and their immediate consignees. The Secretary’s determination shall be based on appropriate investigations of each applicant and periodic reviews of licensees and their compliance with the terms of licenses issued under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]. Factors such as the applicant’s products or volume of business, or the consignees’ geographic location, sales distribution area, or degree of foreign ownership, which may be relevant with respect to individual cases, shall not be determinative in creating categories or general criteria for the denial of applications or withdrawal of a distribution license.
(B) A comprehensive operations license, authorizing exports and reexports of technology and related goods, including items from the list of militarily critical technologies developed pursuant to section 5(d) of this Act [section 2404 (d) of this Appendix] which are included on the control list in accordance with that section, from a domestic concern to and among its foreign subsidiaries, affiliates, joint venturers, and licensees that have long-term, contractually defined relations with the exporter, are located in countries other than controlled countries (except the People’s Republic of China), and are approved by the Secretary. The Secretary shall grant the license to manufacturing, laboratory, or related operations on the basis of approval of the exporter’s systems of control, including internal proprietary controls, applicable to the technology and related goods to be exported rather than approval of individual export transactions. The Secretary and the Commissioner of Customs, consistent with their authorities under section 12(a) of this Act [section 2411 (a) of this Appendix] and with the assistance of all appropriate agencies, shall periodically, but not less frequently than annually, perform audits of licensing procedures under this subparagraph in order to assure the integrity and effectiveness of those procedures.
(b) Control list
The Secretary shall establish and maintain a list (hereinafter in this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] referred to as the “control list”) stating license requirements (other than for general licenses) for exports of goods and technology under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix].
(c) Foreign availability
In accordance with the provisions of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], the President shall not impose export controls for foreign policy or national security purposes on the export from the United States of goods or technology which he determines are available without restriction from sources outside the United States in sufficient quantities and comparable in quality to those produced in the United States so as to render the controls ineffective in achieving their purposes, unless the President determines that adequate evidence has been presented to him demonstrating that the absence of such controls would prove detrimental to the foreign policy or national security of the United States. In complying with the provisions of this subsection, the President shall give strong emphasis to bilateral or multilateral negotiations to eliminate foreign availability. The Secretary and the Secretary of Defense shall cooperate in gathering information relating to foreign availability, including the establishment and maintenance of a jointly operated computer system.
(d) Right of export
(e) Delegation of authority
The President may delegate the power, authority, and discretion conferred upon him by this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] to such departments, agencies, or officials of the Government as he may consider appropriate, except that no authority under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] may be delegated to, or exercised by, any official of any department or agency the head of which is not appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The President may not delegate or transfer his power, authority, and discretion to overrule or modify any recommendation or decision made by the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense, or the Secretary of State pursuant to the provisions of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix].
(f) Notification of public; consultation with business
The Secretary shall keep the public fully apprised of changes in export control policy and procedures instituted in conformity with this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] with a view to encouraging trade. The Secretary shall meet regularly with representatives of a broad spectrum of enterprises, labor organizations, and citizens interested in or affected by export controls, in order to obtain their views on United States export control policy and the foreign availability of goods and technology.