10 U.S. Code § 987 - Terms of consumer credit extended to members and dependents: limitations
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(a) Interest.— A creditor who extends consumer credit to a covered member of the armed forces or a dependent of such a member shall not require the member or dependent to pay interest with respect to the extension of such credit, except as—
(b) Annual Percentage Rate.— A creditor described in subsection (a) may not impose an annual percentage rate of interest greater than 36 percent with respect to the consumer credit extended to a covered member or a dependent of a covered member.
(c) Mandatory Loan Disclosures.—
(1) Information required.— With respect to any extension of consumer credit (including any consumer credit originated or extended through the internet) to a covered member or a dependent of a covered member, a creditor shall provide to the member or dependent the following information orally and in writing before the issuance of the credit:
(1) Inconsistent laws.— Except as provided in subsection (f)(2), this section preempts any State or Federal law, rule, or regulation, including any State usury law, to the extent that such law, rule, or regulation is inconsistent with this section, except that this section shall not preempt any such law, rule, or regulation that provides protection to a covered member or a dependent of such a member in addition to the protection provided by this section.
(2) Different treatment under state law of members and dependents prohibited.— States shall not—
(A) authorize creditors to charge covered members and their dependents annual percentage rates of interest for loans higher than the legal limit for residents of the State; or
(e) Limitations.— It shall be unlawful for any creditor to extend consumer credit to a covered member or a dependent of such a member with respect to which—
(1) the creditor rolls over, renews, repays, refinances, or consolidates any consumer credit extended to the borrower by the same creditor with the proceeds of other credit extended to the same covered member or a dependent;
(2) the borrower is required to waive the borrower’s right to legal recourse under any otherwise applicable provision of State or Federal law, including any provision of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act;
(3) the creditor requires the borrower to submit to arbitration or imposes onerous legal notice provisions in the case of a dispute;
(5) the creditor uses a check or other method of access to a deposit, savings, or other financial account maintained by the borrower, or the title of a vehicle as security for the obligation;
(6) the creditor requires as a condition for the extension of credit that the borrower establish an allotment to repay an obligation; or
(f) Penalties and Remedies.—
(1) Misdemeanor.— A creditor who knowingly violates this section shall be fined as provided in title 18, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.
(2) Preservation of other remedies.— The remedies and rights provided under this section are in addition to and do not preclude any remedy otherwise available under law to the person claiming relief under this section, including any award for consequential and punitive damages.
(3) Contract void.— Any credit agreement, promissory note, or other contract prohibited under this section is void from the inception of such contract.
(4) Arbitration.— Notwithstanding section 2 of title 9, or any other Federal or State law, rule, or regulation, no agreement to arbitrate any dispute involving the extension of consumer credit shall be enforceable against any covered member or dependent of such a member, or any person who was a covered member or dependent of that member when the agreement was made.
(5) Civil liability.—
(A) In general.— A person who violates this section with respect to any person is civilly liable to such person for—
(B) Costs of the action.— In any successful action to enforce the civil liability described in subparagraph (A), the person who violated this section is also liable for the costs of the action, together with reasonable attorney fees as determined by the court.
(C) Effect of finding of bad faith and harassment.— In any successful action by a defendant under this section, if the court finds the action was brought in bad faith and for the purpose of harassment, the plaintiff is liable for the attorney fees of the defendant as determined by the court to be reasonable in relation to the work expended and costs incurred.
(D) Defenses.— A person may not be held liable for civil liability under this paragraph if the person shows by a preponderance of evidence that the violation was not intentional and resulted from a bona fide error notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any such error. Examples of a bona fide error include clerical, calculation, computer malfunction and programming, and printing errors, except that an error of legal judgment with respect to a person’s obligations under this section is not a bona fide error.
(E) Jurisdiction, venue, and statute of limitations.— An action for civil liability under this paragraph may be brought in any appropriate United States district court, without regard to the amount in controversy, or in any other court of competent jurisdiction, not later than the earlier of—
(i) two years after the date of discovery by the plaintiff of the violation that is the basis for such liability; or
(6) Administrative enforcement.— The provisions of this section (other than paragraph (1) of this subsection) shall be enforced by the agencies specified in section 108 of the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1607) in the manner set forth in that section or under any other applicable authorities available to such agencies by law.
(g) Servicemembers Civil Relief Act Protections Unaffected.— Nothing in this section may be construed to limit or otherwise affect the applicability of section 207 of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (50 App. U.S.C. 527).
(2) Such regulations shall establish the following:
(A) Disclosures required of any creditor that extends consumer credit to a covered member or dependent of such a member.
(B) The method for calculating the applicable annual percentage rate of interest on such obligations, in accordance with the limit established under this section.
(C) A maximum allowable amount of all fees, and the types of fees, associated with any such extension of credit, to be expressed and disclosed to the borrower as a total amount and as a percentage of the principal amount of the obligation, at the time at which the transaction is entered into.
(D) Definitions of “creditor” under paragraph (5) and “consumer credit” under paragraph (6) of subsection (i), consistent with the provisions of this section.
(3) In prescribing regulations under this subsection, and not less often than once every two years thereafter, the Secretary of Defense shall consult with the following:
(i) Definitions.— In this section:
(1) Covered member.— The term “covered member” means a member of the armed forces who is—
(2) Dependent.— The term “dependent”, with respect to a covered member, means a person described in subparagraph (A), (D), (E), or (I) of section 1072 (2) of this title.
(3) Interest.— The term “interest” includes all cost elements associated with the extension of credit, including fees, service charges, renewal charges, credit insurance premiums, any ancillary product sold with any extension of credit to a servicemember or the servicemember’s dependent, as applicable, and any other charge or premium with respect to the extension of consumer credit.
(4) Annual percentage rate.— The term “annual percentage rate” has the same meaning as in section 107 of the Truth and Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1606), as implemented by regulations of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. For purposes of this section, such term includes all fees and charges, including charges and fees for single premium credit insurance and other ancillary products sold in connection with the credit transaction, and such fees and charges shall be included in the calculation of the annual percentage rate.
(5) Creditor.— The term “creditor” means a person—
(6) Consumer credit.— The term “consumer credit” has the meaning provided for such term in regulations prescribed under this section, except that such term does not include
(B) a loan procured in the course of purchasing a car or other personal property, when that loan is offered for the express purpose of financing the purchase and is secured by the car or personal property procured.
Source(Added Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VI, § 670(a),Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2266; amended Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VI, §§ 661(a), (b), 662 (a), (b), 663,Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1785, 1786.)
Amendment of Subsection (d)(2)
Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VI, § 661(a), (c),Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1785, provided that, one year after Jan. 2, 2013, or such earlier date as the Secretary of Defense shall specify in the modification of regulations required by § 661(c)(1) ofPub. L. 112–239, subsection (d)(2) of this section is amended— (1) in subparagraph (A), by inserting “any consumer credit or” before “loans”; and (2) in subparagraph (B), by inserting “covering consumer credit” after “State consumer lending protections”. See 2011 Amendment notes below.
References in Text
The Truth in Lending Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(B), (2), is title I of Pub. L. 90–321, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 146, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§ 1601 et seq.) of chapter 41 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 15 and Tables.
The Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, referred to in subsecs. (e)(2) and (g), is act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, 54 Stat. 1178, as amended, which is classified to section 501 et seq. of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 501 of Title 50, Appendix, and Tables.
2013—Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 112–239, § 661(a)(1), inserted “any consumer credit or” before “loans”.
Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 112–239, § 661(a)(2), inserted “covering consumer credit” after “State consumer lending protections”.
Subsec. (f)(5), (6). Pub. L. 112–239, § 662(a), (b), added pars. (5) and (6).
Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 112–239, § 661(b)(1), inserted “and not less often than once every two years thereafter,” after “under this subsection,” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (h)(3)(E). Pub. L. 112–239, § 661(b)(2), added subpar. (E) and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: “The Office of Thrift Supervision.”
Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 112–239, § 663, amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) defined the term “dependent”.
Effective Date of 2013 Amendments
“(1) Modification of regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall modify the regulations prescribed under subsection (h) ofsection 987 of title 10, United States Code, to take into account the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section].
“(2) Effective date.—The amendments made by subsection (a) shall take effect on—
“(A) the date that is one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013]; or
“(B) such earlier date as the Secretary shall specify in the modification of regulations required by paragraph (1).
“(3) Publication of earlier date.—If the Secretary specifies an earlier effective date for the amendments made by subsection (a) pursuant to paragraph (2)(B), the Secretary shall publish notice of such earlier effective date in the Federal Register not later than 90 days before such earlier effective date.”
Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VI, § 662(c),Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1786, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to consumer credit extended on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013].”
“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), section 987 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall take effect on October 1, 2007, or on such earlier date as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, and shall apply with respect to extensions of consumer credit on or after such effective date.
“(2) Authority to prescribe regulations.—Subsection (h) of such section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006].
“(3) Publication of earlier effective date.—If the Secretary of Defense prescribes an effective date for section 987 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), earlier than October 1, 2007, the Secretary shall publish that date in the Federal Register. Such publication shall be made not less than 90 days before that earlier effective date.”
Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VI, § 670(d),Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2269, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense may prescribe interim regulations as necessary to carry out such section [this section]. For the purpose of prescribing such interim regulations, the Secretary is excepted from compliance with the notice-and-comment requirements of section 553 of title 5, United States Code. All interim rules prescribed under the authority of this subsection that are not earlier superseded by final rules shall expire no later than 270 days after the effective date of section 987 of title 10, United States Code [see Effective Date note above], as added by this section.”
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