11 U.S. Code § 345 - Money of estates
(a) A trustee in a case under this title may make such deposit or investment of the money of the estate for which such trustee serves as will yield the maximum reasonable net return on such money, taking into account the safety of such deposit or investment.
(b) Except with respect to a deposit or investment that is insured or guaranteed by the United States or by a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, the trustee shall require from an entity with which such money is deposited or invested—
(1) a bond—
(B) secured by the undertaking of a corporate surety approved by the United States trustee for the district in which the case is pending; and
unless the court for cause orders otherwise.
Source(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2565; Pub. L. 97–258, § 3(c),Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1064; Pub. L. 98–353, title III, § 437,July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 370; Pub. L. 99–554, title II, § 214,Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3099; Pub. L. 103–394, title II, § 210,Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4125.)
Historical and Revision Notes
The House amendment moves section 345(c) of the House bill to chapter 15 as part of the pilot program for the U.S. trustees. The bond required by section 345 (b) may be a blanket bond posted by the financial depository sufficient to cover deposits by trustees in several cases, as is done under current law.
senate report no. 95–989
This section is a significant departure from section 61 of the Bankruptcy Act [section 101 of former title 11]. It permits a trustee in a bankruptcy case to make such deposit of investment of the money of the estate for which he serves as will yield the maximum reasonable net return on the money, taking into account the safety of such deposit or investment. Under current law, the trustee is permitted to deposit money only with banking institutions. Thus, the trustee is generally unable to secure a high rate of return on money of estates pending distribution, to the detriment of creditors. Under this section, the trustee may make deposits in savings and loans, may purchase government bonds, or make such other deposit or investment as is appropriate. Under proposed 11 U.S.C. 541 (a)(6), and except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, any interest or gain realized on the deposit or investment of funds under this section will become property of the estate, and will thus enhance the recovery of creditors.
In order to protect the creditors, subsection (b) requires certain precautions against loss of the money so deposited or invested. The trustee must require from a person with which he deposits or invests money of an estate a bond in favor of the United States secured by approved corporate surety and conditioned on a proper accounting for all money deposited or invested and for any return on such money. Alternately, the trustee may require the deposit of securities of the kind specified in section 15 of title 6 of the United States Code [31 U.S.C. 9303], which governs the posting of security by banks that receive public moneys on deposit. These bonding requirements do not apply to deposits or investments that are insured or guaranteed the United States or a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States, or that are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States.
These provisions do not address the question of aggregation of funds by a private chapter 13 trustee and are not to be construed as excluding such possibility. The Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure may provide for aggregation under appropriate circumstances and adequate safeguards in cases where there is a significant need, such as in districts in which there is a standing chapter 13 trustee. In such case, the interest or return on the funds would help defray the cost of administering the cases in which the standing trustee serves.
1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–394substituted semicolon for period at end of par. (2) and inserted concluding provisions after par. (2).
1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–554amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting “approved by the United States trustee for the district” for “approved by the court for the district” in par. (1)(B).
1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–353added subsec. (c).
1982—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–258substituted “section 9303 of title 31” for “section 15 of title 6”.
Effective Date of 1994 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 103–394effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 ofPub. L. 103–394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment
Effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 99–554dependent upon the judicial district involved, see section 302(d), (e) ofPub. L. 99–554, set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment
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