15 U.S. Code § 4101 - Congressional findings and declaration of purposes
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(a) The Congress finds and declares that—
(1) the Arctic, onshore and offshore, contains vital energy resources that can reduce the Nation’s dependence on foreign oil and improve the national balance of payments;
(3) the renewable resources of the Arctic, specifically fish and other seafood, represent one of the Nation’s greatest commercial assets;
(4) Arctic conditions directly affect global weather patterns and must be understood in order to promote better agricultural management throughout the United States;
(5) industrial pollution not originating in the Arctic region collects in the polar air mass, has the potential to disrupt global weather patterns, and must be controlled through international cooperation and consultation;
(6) the Arctic is a natural laboratory for research into human health and adaptation, physical and psychological, to climates of extreme cold and isolation and may provide information crucial for future defense needs;
(7) atmospheric conditions peculiar to the Arctic make the Arctic a unique testing ground for research into high latitude communications, which is likely to be crucial for future defense needs;
(8) Arctic marine technology is critical to cost-effective recovery and transportation of energy resources and to the national defense;
(9) the United States has important security, economic, and environmental interests in developing and maintaining a fleet of icebreaking vessels capable of operating effectively in the heavy ice regions of the Arctic;
(10) most Arctic-rim countries possess Arctic technologies far more advanced than those currently available in the United States;
(11) Federal Arctic research is fragmented and uncoordinated at the present time, leading to the neglect of certain areas of research and to unnecessary duplication of effort in other areas of research;
(12) improved logistical coordination and support for Arctic research and better dissemination of research data and information is necessary to increase the efficiency and utility of national Arctic research efforts;
(13) a comprehensive national policy and program plan to organize and fund currently neglected scientific research with respect to the Arctic is necessary to fulfill national objectives in Arctic research;
(14) the Federal Government, in cooperation with State and local governments, should focus its efforts on the collection and characterization of basic data related to biological, materials, geophysical, social, and behavioral phenomena in the Arctic;
(15) research into the long-range health, environmental, and social effects of development in the Arctic is necessary to mitigate the adverse consequences of that development to the land and its residents;
(16) Arctic research expands knowledge of the Arctic, which can enhance the lives of Arctic residents, increase opportunities for international cooperation among Arctic-rim countries, and facilitate the formulation of national policy for the Arctic; and
(b) The purposes of this chapter are—
(1) to establish national policy, priorities, and goals and to provide a Federal program plan for basic and applied scientific research with respect to the Arctic, including natural resources and materials, physical, biological and health sciences, and social and behavioral sciences;
(2) to establish an Arctic Research Commission to promote Arctic research and to recommend Arctic research policy;
(3) to designate the National Science Foundation as the lead agency responsible for implementing Arctic research policy; and
Source(Pub. L. 98–373, title I, § 102,July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1242; Pub. L. 103–199, title VI, § 601,Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2327.)
1993—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–199, § 601(1), struck out “as the Nation’s only common border with the Soviet Union,” before “the Arctic”.
Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 103–199, § 601(2), struck out “, particularly the Soviet Union,” after “countries”.
Pub. L. 98–373, title I, § 102,July 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 1242, provided that: “This title [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984’.”
Ex. Ord. No. 12501. Arctic Research
Ex. Ord. No. 12501, Jan. 28, 1985, 50 F.R. 4191, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, § 45, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10627, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 (Title I of Public Law 98–373) (“the Act”) [15 U.S.C. 4101 et seq.], it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Establishment of Arctic Research Commission. There is established the Arctic Research Commission.
Sec. 2. Membership of the Commission. (a) The Commission shall be composed of five members appointed by the President, as follows:
(1) three members appointed from among individuals from academic or other research institutions with expertise in areas of research relating to the Arctic, including the physical, biological, health, environmental, social, and behavioral sciences;
(2) one member appointed from among indigenous residents of the Arctic who are representative of the needs and interests of Arctic residents and who live in areas directly affected by Arctic resources development; and
(3) one member appointed from individuals familiar with the Arctic and representative of the needs and interests of private industry undertaking resource development in the Arctic.
The Director of the National Science Foundation shall serve as a nonvoting ex officio member of the Commission. The President shall designate a Chairperson from among the five voting members of the Commission.
(b) In making initial appointments to the Commission, the President shall designate one member to serve for a term of two years, two members to serve for terms of three years, and two members to serve for terms of four years as provided by Section 103(c) of the Act [15 U.S.C. 4102 (c)]. Upon the expiration of these initial terms of office, the term of office of each member of the Commission shall be four years.
(c) Each of the Federal agencies represented on the Interagency Committee established by Section 7 of this Order may designate a representative to participate as an observer with the Commission. These representatives shall report to and advise the Commission on the activities of their agencies relating to Arctic research.
Sec. 3. Meetings of the Commission. The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairman or a majority of its members. The Commission annually shall conduct at least one public meeting in the State of Alaska.
Sec. 4. Functions of the Commission. (a) The Commission shall:
(1) develop and recommend an integrated national Arctic research policy;
(2) assist, in cooperation with the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee established by Section 7 of this Order, in establishing a national Arctic research program plan to implement the Arctic research policy;
(3) facilitate cooperation between the Federal government and State and local governments with respect to Arctic research;
(4) review Federal research programs in the Arctic and suggest improvements in coordination among programs;
(5) recommend methods to improve logistical planning and support for Arctic research as may be appropriate;
(6) suggest methods for improving efficient sharing and dissemination of data and information on the Arctic among interested public and private institutions;
(7) offer other recommendations and advice to the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee as it may find appropriate; and
(8) cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska, and with agencies and organizations of that State which the Governor may designate, with respect to the formulation of Arctic research policy.
(b) Not later than January 31 of each year, the Commission shall:
(1) submit to the President and Congress a report describing the activities and accomplishments of the Commission during the immediately preceding fiscal year; and
(2) publish a statement of goals and objectives with respect to Arctic research to guide the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee in the performance of its duties.
Sec. 5. Responsibilities of Federal Agencies. (a) The heads of Executive agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, and in accordance with Section 105 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 4104], provide the Commission such information as it may require for purposes of carrying out its functions.
(b) The heads of Executive agencies shall, upon reimbursement to be agreed upon by the Commission and the agency head, permit the Commission to utilize their facilities and services to the extent that the facilities and services are needed for the establishment and development of an Arctic research policy. The Commission shall take every feasible step to avoid duplication of effort.
(c) All Federal agencies shall consult with the Commission before undertaking major Federal actions relating to Arctic research.
Sec. 6. Administration of the Commission. Members of the Commission who are otherwise employed for compensation shall serve without compensation for their work on the Commission, but may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law for persons serving intermittently in the government service. Members of the Commission who are not otherwise employed for compensation shall be compensated for each day the member is engaged in actual performance of duties as a member, not to exceed 90 days of service each calendar year, at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the rate for GS–16 of the General Schedule.
Sec. 7. Establishment of Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee. There is established the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (the “Interagency Committee”). The National Science Foundation shall serve as lead agency on the Interagency Committee and shall be responsible for implementing Arctic research policy.
Sec. 8. Membership of the Interagency Committee. The Interagency Committee shall be composed of representatives of the following Federal agencies or their designees:
(a) National Science Foundation;
(b) Department of Commerce;
(c) Department of Defense;
(d) Department of Energy;
(e) Department of the Interior;
(f) Department of State;
(g) Department of Transportation;
(h) Department of Health and Human Services;
(i) Department of Homeland Security;
(j) National Aeronautics and Space Administration;
(k) Environmental Protection Agency;
(l) Office of Science and Technology Policy; and
(m) any other Executive agency that the Director of the National Science Foundation shall deem appropriate. The Director of the National Science Foundation or his designee shall serve as Chairperson of the Interagency Committee.
Sec. 9. Functions of the Interagency Committee. (a) The Interagency Committee shall:
(1) survey Arctic research conducted by Federal, State, and local agencies, universities, and other public and private institutions to help determine priorities for future Arctic research, including natural resources and materials, physical and biological sciences, and social and behavioral sciences;
(2) work with the Commission to develop and establish an integrated national Arctic research policy that will guide Federal agencies in developing and implementing their research programs in the Arctic;
(3) consult with the Commission on:
(a) the development of the national Arctic research policy and the 5-year plan implementing the policy;
(b) Arctic research programs of Federal agencies;
(c) recommendations of the Commission on future Arctic research; and
(d) guidelines for Federal agencies for awarding and administering Arctic research grants;
(4) develop a 5-year plan to implement the national policy, as provided in section 109 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 4108];
(5) provide the necessary coordination, data, and assistance for the preparation of a single integrated, coherent, and multi-agency budget request for Arctic research, as provided in section 110 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 4109];
(6) facilitate cooperation between the Federal government and State and local governments in Arctic research, and recommend the undertaking of neglected areas of research;
(7) coordinate and promote cooperative Arctic scientific research programs with other nations, subject to the foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State;
(8) cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Act; and
(9) promote Federal interagency coordination of all Arctic research activities, including:
(a) logistical planning and coordination; and
(b) the sharing of data and information associated with Arctic research, subject to section 552 of title 5, United States Code.
(b) Not later than January 31, 1986, and biennially thereafter, the Interagency Committee shall submit to the Congress through the President a report concerning:
(1) its activities and accomplishments since its last report; and
(2) the activities of the Commission, detailing with particularity the recommendations of the Commission with respect to Federal activities in Arctic research.
Sec. 10. Public Participation. The Interagency Committee will provide public notice of its meetings and an opportunity for the public to participate in the development and implementation of national Arctic research policy.
Sec. 11. Administration of Interagency Committee. Each agency represented on the Committee shall, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of funds, provide the Committee with such administrative services, facilities, staff, and other support services as may be necessary for effective performance of its functions.
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