18 U.S. Code § 3152 - Establishment of pretrial services
(a) On and after the date of the enactment of the Pretrial Services Act of 1982, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the “Director”) shall, under the supervision and direction of the Judicial Conference of the United States, provide directly, or by contract or otherwise (to such extent and in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts), for the establishment of pretrial services in each judicial district (other than the District of Columbia). Pretrial services established under this section shall be supervised by a chief probation officer appointed under section 3654 of this title or by a chief pretrial services officer selected under subsection (c) of this section.
(b) Beginning eighteen months after the date of the enactment of the Pretrial Services Act of 1982, if an appropriate United States district court and the circuit judicial council jointly recommend the establishment under this subsection of pretrial services in a particular district, pretrial services shall be established under the general authority of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.
(c) The pretrial services established under subsection (b) of this section shall be supervised by a chief pretrial services officer appointed by the district court. The chief pretrial services officer appointed under this subsection shall be an individual other than one serving under authority of section 3602 of this title.
Source(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, § 201,Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2086; amended Pub. L. 97–267, § 2,Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1136; Pub. L. 110–406, § 10,Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4293.)
References in Text
The date of enactment of the Pretrial Services Act of 1982, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 97–267, which was approved Sept. 27, 1982.
A prior section 3152, as added by Pub. L. 89–465, § 3(a),June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, defined the terms “judicial officer” and “offense”, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–619, § 201. See section 3156 of this title.
2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–406added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to supervision of pretrial services.
1982—Pub. L. 97–267struck out “agencies” after “services” in section catchline, divided previously unlettered text provisions into subsecs. (a), (b), and (c), and substituted revised provisions as so redesignated for provisions which required the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts to establish, on a demonstration basis, in each of ten representative judicial districts (other than the District of Columbia), a pretrial services agency authorized to maintain effective supervision and control over, and to provide supportive services to, defendants released under this chapter such districts to be designated by the Chief Justice of the United States after consultation with the Attorney General, on the basis of such considerations as the number of criminal cases prosecuted annually in the district, the percentage of defendants in the district presently detained prior to trial, the incidence of crime charged against persons released pending trial under this chapter, and the availability of community resources to implement the conditions of release which may be imposed under this chapter.
Authorization of Appropriations
“(a) There are authorized to be appropriated, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, and each succeeding fiscal year thereafter, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the functions and powers of pretrial services established under section 3152 (b) of title 18, United States Code.
“(b) There are authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983, and the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the functions and powers of the pretrial services agencies established under section 3152 of title 18 of the United States Code in effect before the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 1982].”
Status of Pretrial Services Agencies in Effect Prior to September 27, 1982
Pub. L. 97–267, § 8,Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1139, provided that: “During the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 1982] and ending eighteen months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the pretrial services agencies established under section 3152 of title 18 of the United States Code in effect before the date of enactment of this Act may continue to operate, employ staff, provide pretrial services, and perform such functions and powers as are authorized under chapter 207 of title 18 of the United States Code [this chapter].”