20 U.S. Code § 1232h - Protection of pupil rights
(a) Inspection of instructional materials by parents or guardians
All instructional materials, including teacher’s manuals, films, tapes, or other supplementary material which will be used in connection with any survey, analysis, or evaluation as part of any applicable program shall be available for inspection by the parents or guardians of the children.
(b) Limits on survey, analysis, or evaluations
No student shall be required, as part of any applicable program, to submit to a survey, analysis, or evaluation that reveals information concerning—
(6) legally recognized privileged or analogous relationships, such as those of lawyers, physicians, and ministers;
(8) income (other than that required by law to determine eligibility for participation in a program or for receiving financial assistance under such program),
without the prior consent of the student (if the student is an adult or emancipated minor), or in the case of an unemancipated minor, without the prior written consent of the parent.
(c) Development of local policies concerning student privacy, parental access to information, and administration of certain physical examinations to minors
(1) Development and adoption of local policies
Except as provided in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, a local educational agency that receives funds under any applicable program shall develop and adopt policies, in consultation with parents, regarding the following:
(i) The right of a parent of a student to inspect, upon the request of the parent, a survey created by a third party before the survey is administered or distributed by a school to a student; and
(B) Arrangements to protect student privacy that are provided by the agency in the event of the administration or distribution of a survey to a student containing one or more of the following items (including the right of a parent of a student to inspect, upon the request of the parent, any survey containing one or more of such items):
(vi) Legally recognized privileged or analogous relationships, such as those of lawyers, physicians, and ministers.
(i) The right of a parent of a student to inspect, upon the request of the parent, any instructional material used as part of the educational curriculum for the student; and
(D) The administration of physical examinations or screenings that the school or agency may administer to a student.
(E) The collection, disclosure, or use of personal information collected from students for the purpose of marketing or for selling that information (or otherwise providing that information to others for that purpose), including arrangements to protect student privacy that are provided by the agency in the event of such collection, disclosure, or use.
(i) The right of a parent of a student to inspect, upon the request of the parent, any instrument used in the collection of personal information under subparagraph (E) before the instrument is administered or distributed to a student; and
(2) Parental notification
(A) Notification of policies
The policies developed by a local educational agency under paragraph (1) shall provide for reasonable notice of the adoption or continued use of such policies directly to the parents of students enrolled in schools served by that agency. At a minimum, the agency shall—
(i) provide such notice at least annually, at the beginning of the school year, and within a reasonable period of time after any substantive change in such policies; and
(B) Notification of specific events
The local educational agency shall directly notify the parent of a student, at least annually at the beginning of the school year, of the specific or approximate dates during the school year when activities described in subparagraph (C) are scheduled, or expected to be scheduled.
(C) Activities requiring notification
The following activities require notification under this paragraph:
(i) Activities involving the collection, disclosure, or use of personal information collected from students for the purpose of marketing or for selling that information (or otherwise providing that information to others for that purpose).
(ii) The administration of any survey containing one or more items described in clauses (i) through (viii) of paragraph (1)(B).
(3) Existing policies
A local educational agency need not develop and adopt new policies if the State educational agency or local educational agency has in place, on January 8, 2002, policies covering the requirements of paragraph (1). The agency shall provide reasonable notice of such existing policies to parents and guardians of students, in accordance with paragraph (2).
(A) Educational products or services
Paragraph (1)(E) does not apply to the collection, disclosure, or use of personal information collected from students for the exclusive purpose of developing, evaluating, or providing educational products or services for, or to, students or educational institutions, such as the following:
(iv) Tests and assessments used by elementary schools and secondary schools to provide cognitive, evaluative, diagnostic, clinical, aptitude, or achievement information about students (or to generate other statistically useful data for the purpose of securing such tests and assessments) and the subsequent analysis and public release of the aggregate data from such tests and assessments.
(v) The sale by students of products or services to raise funds for school-related or education-related activities.
(B) State law exception
The provisions of this subsection—
(i) shall not be construed to preempt applicable provisions of State law that require parental notification; and
(5) General provisions
(A) Rules of construction
(i) This section does not supersede section 1232g of this title.
(B) Student rights
The rights provided to parents under this section transfer to the student when the student turns 18 years old, or is an emancipated minor (under an applicable State law) at any age.
(C) Information activities
The Secretary shall annually inform each State educational agency and each local educational agency of the educational agency’s obligations under this section and section 1232g of this title.
As used in this subsection:
(A) Instructional material
The term “instructional material” means instructional content that is provided to a student, regardless of its format, including printed or representational materials, audio-visual materials, and materials in electronic or digital formats (such as materials accessible through the Internet). The term does not include academic tests or academic assessments.
(B) Invasive physical examination
The term “invasive physical examination” means any medical examination that involves the exposure of private body parts, or any act during such examination that includes incision, insertion, or injection into the body, but does not include a hearing, vision, or scoliosis screening.
(C) Local educational agency
The term “local educational agency” means an elementary school, secondary school, school district, or local board of education that is the recipient of funds under an applicable program, but does not include a postsecondary institution.
The term “parent” includes a legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis (such as a grandparent or stepparent with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for the welfare of the child).
(E) Personal information
The term “personal information” means individually identifiable information including—
Educational agencies and institutions shall give parents and students effective notice of their rights under this section.
The Secretary shall take such action as the Secretary determines appropriate to enforce this section, except that action to terminate assistance provided under an applicable program shall be taken only if the Secretary determines that—
Source(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, § 445, formerly § 439, as added Pub. L. 93–380, title V, § 514(a),Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 574; amended Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, § 1250,Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2355; Pub. L. 103–227, title X, § 1017,Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 268; renumbered § 445,Pub. L. 103–382, title II, § 212(b)(1),Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3913; amended Pub. L. 107–110, title X, § 1061,Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 2083.)
References in Text
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(A)(ii), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§ 1400 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of this title and Tables.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(D), is Pub. L. 89–10, Apr. 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 27, as amended. Part A of title V of the Act is classified generally to part A (§ 7201 et seq.) of subchapter V of chapter 70 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6301 of this title and Tables.
A prior section 445 ofPub. L. 90–247was classified to section 1233d of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382.
2002—Subsec. (b)(1) to (8). Pub. L. 107–110, § 1061(1), added pars. (1) to (8) and struck out former pars. (1) to (7) which read as follows:
“(1) political affiliations;
“(2) mental and psychological problems potentially embarrassing to the student or his family;
“(3) sex behavior and attitudes;
“(4) illegal, anti-social, self-incriminating and demeaning behavior;
“(5) critical appraisals of other individuals with whom respondents have close family relationships;
“(6) legally recognized privileged or analogous relationships, such as those of lawyers, physicians, and ministers; or
“(7) income (other than that required by law to determine eligibility for participation in a program or for receiving financial assistance under such program),”.
Subsec. (c) to (f). Pub. L. 107–110, § 1061(2), (3), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) to (e) as (d) to (f), respectively.
1994—Pub. L. 103–227amended section generally, substituting in subsec. (a), provisions relating to inspection of instructional materials by parents or guardians for similar provisions, in subsec. (b), provisions relating to limits on survey, analysis, or evaluations for provisions relating to psychiatric or psychological examinations, testing, or treatment, and adding subsecs. (c) to (e).
1978—Pub. L. 95–561designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).
Effective Date of 2002 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 107–110effective Jan. 8, 2002, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 ofPub. L. 107–110, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of this title.
Effective Date of 1978 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 95–561effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 1530(a) ofPub. L. 95–561, set out as a note under section 1221e–3 of this title.
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