21 U.S. Code § 853 - Criminal forfeitures
All right, title, and interest in property described in subsection (a) of this section vests in the United States upon the commission of the act giving rise to forfeiture under this section. Any such property that is subsequently transferred to a person other than the defendant may be the subject of a special verdict of forfeiture and thereafter shall be ordered forfeited to the United States, unless the transferee establishes in a hearing pursuant to subsection (n) of this section that he is a bona fide purchaser for value of such property who at the time of purchase was reasonably without cause to believe that the property was subject to forfeiture under this section.
The Government may request the issuance of a warrant authorizing the seizure of property subject to forfeiture under this section in the same manner as provided for a search warrant. If the court determines that there is probable cause to believe that the property to be seized would, in the event of conviction, be subject to forfeiture and that an order under subsection (e) of this section may not be sufficient to assure the availability of the property for forfeiture, the court shall issue a warrant authorizing the seizure of such property.
Upon entry of an order of forfeiture under this section, the court shall authorize the Attorney General to seize all property ordered forfeited upon such terms and conditions as the court shall deem proper. Following entry of an order declaring the property forfeited, the court may, upon application of the United States, enter such appropriate restraining orders or injunctions, require the execution of satisfactory performance bonds, appoint receivers, conservators, appraisers, accountants, or trustees, or take any other action to protect the interest of the United States in the property ordered forfeited. Any income accruing to or derived from property ordered forfeited under this section may be used to offset ordinary and necessary expenses to the property which are required by law, or which are necessary to protect the interests of the United States or third parties.
Following the seizure of property ordered forfeited under this section, the Attorney General shall direct the disposition of the property by sale or any other commercially feasible means, making due provision for the rights of any innocent persons. Any property right or interest not exercisable by, or transferable for value to, the United States shall expire and shall not revert to the defendant, nor shall the defendant or any person acting in concert with him or on his behalf be eligible to purchase forfeited property at any sale held by the United States. Upon application of a person, other than the defendant or a person acting in concert with him or on his behalf, the court may restrain or stay the sale or disposition of the property pending the conclusion of any appeal of the criminal case giving rise to the forfeiture, if the applicant demonstrates that proceeding with the sale or disposition of the property will result in irreparable injury, harm, or loss to him.
Except to the extent that they are inconsistent with the provisions of this section, the provisions of section 881(d) of this title shall apply to a criminal forfeiture under this section.
The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to enter orders as provided in this section without regard to the location of any property which may be subject to forfeiture under this section or which has been ordered forfeited under this section.
In order to facilitate the identification and location of property declared forfeited and to facilitate the disposition of petitions for remission or mitigation of forfeiture, after the entry of an order declaring property forfeited to the United States, the court may, upon application of the United States, order that the testimony of any witness relating to the property forfeited be taken by deposition and that any designated book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material not privileged be produced at the same time and place, in the same manner as provided for the taking of depositions under Rule 15 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.
The provisions of this section shall be liberally construed to effectuate its remedial purposes.
In any case described in any of subparagraphs (A) through (E) of paragraph (1), the court shall order the forfeiture of any other property of the defendant, up to the value of any property described in subparagraphs (A) through (E) of paragraph (1), as applicable.
The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (m), are set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.
2009—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 111–16 substituted “fourteen days” for “ten days”.
2006—Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 109–177, § 743(a)(1), inserted “, the possession, or the possession with intent to distribute,” after “manufacture” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (q)(2). Pub. L. 109–177, § 743(a)(2), inserted “, or on premises or in property that the defendant owns, resides, or does business in” after “by the defendant”.
2001—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 107–56, § 319(d)(2), added par. (4).
Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 107–56, § 319(d)(1), inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (p) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “If any of the property described in subsection (a) of this section, as a result of any act or omission of the defendant—
“(1) cannot be located upon the exercise of due diligence;
“(2) has been transferred or sold to, or deposited with, a third party;
“(3) has been placed beyond the jurisdiction of the court;
“(4) has been substantially diminished in value; or
“(5) has been commingled with other property which cannot be divided without difficulty;
the court shall order the forfeiture of any other property of the defendant up to the value of any property described in paragraphs (1) through (5).”
2000—Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 106–310, § 3613(a)(1), (2), in introductory provisions, inserted “amphetamine or” before “methamphetamine” and substituted “shall” for “may”.
Subsec. (q)(2). Pub. L. 106–310, § 3613(a)(2), (3), inserted “, the State or local government concerned, or both the United States and the State or local government concerned” after “to reimburse the United States”, “or the State or local government concerned, as the case may be,” after “costs incurred by the United States”, and “amphetamine or” before “methamphetamine”.
1996—Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 104–237 added subsec. (q).
1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1864(1), substituted “subsection (n)” for “subsection (
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1864(2), substituted “subsection (e)” for “subsection (f)”.
Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1864(3), substituted “this subchapter” for “this chapter”.
Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1864(1), (4), which directed the substitution of “subsection (n)” for “subsection (
Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1153(b), which directed that “section 413 of title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1975” be amended “by redesignating subsection ‘(p)’ as subsection ‘(q)’ ” and adding subsec. (p) was executed to this section, which is section 413 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, as the probable intent of Congress, by adding a subsec. (p) in view of the prior redesignation of subsec. (p) as (
1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473, § 2301(d), inserted “In lieu of a fine otherwise authorized by this part, a defendant who derives profits or other proceeds from an offense may be fined not more than twice the gross profits or other proceeds.”
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–473, § 2301(e), struck out subsec. (d) which related to forfeiture of property other than that described in subsec. (a) and the conditions therefor, and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (d).
Subsecs. (e) to (p). Pub. L. 98–473, § 2301(e)(2), which directed that this section be amended by redesignating subsecs. (e), (f), (g), (h), (i), (
Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, § 2301(f), struck out “for at least seven successive court days” after “to dispose of the property”.