22 U.S. Code § 2191 - Congressional statement of purpose; creation and functions of Corporation
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To mobilize and facilitate the participation of United States private capital and skills in the economic and social development of less developed countries and areas, and countries in transition from nonmarket to market economies, thereby complementing the development assistance objectives of the United States, there is hereby created the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (hereinafter called the “Corporation”), which shall be an agency of the United States under the policy guidance of the Secretary of State.
The Corporation, in determining whether to provide insurance, financing, or reinsurance for a project, shall especially—
(1) be guided by the economic and social development impact and benefits of such a project and the ways in which such a project complements, or is compatible with, other development assistance programs or projects of the United States or other donors;
(2) give preferential consideration to investment projects in less developed countries that have per capita incomes of $984 or less in 1986 United States dollars, and restrict its activities with respect to investment projects in less developed countries that have per capita incomes of $4,269 or more in 1986 United States dollars (other than countries designated as beneficiary countries under section 2702 of title 19, Ireland, and Northern Ireland); and
(3) ensure that the project is consistent with the provisions of section 2151p of this title, section 2151p–1 of this title, and section 2151q of this title relating to the environment and natural resources of, and tropical forests and endangered species in, developing countries, and consistent with the intent of regulations issued pursuant to section 2151p of this title, section 2151p–1 of this title, and section 2151q of this title.
In carrying out its purpose, the Corporation, utilizing broad criteria, shall undertake—
(a) to conduct financing, insurance, and reinsurance operations on a self-sustaining basis, taking into account in its financing operations the economic and financial soundness of projects;
(b) to utilize private credit and investment institutions and the Corporation’s guaranty authority as the principal means of mobilizing capital investment funds;
(c) to broaden private participation and revolve its funds through selling its direct investments to private investors whenever it can appropriately do so on satisfactory terms;
(d) to conduct its insurance operations with due regard to principles of risk management including efforts to share its insurance and reinsurance risks;
(1) to give preferential consideration in its investment insurance, reinsurance, and guaranty activities to investment projects sponsored by or involving United States small business; and
(2) to increase the proportion of projects sponsored by or significantly involving United States small business to at least 30 percent of all projects insured, reinsured, or guaranteed by the Corporation;
(f) to consider in the conduct of its operations the extent to which less developed country governments are receptive to private enterprise, domestic and foreign, and their willingness and ability to maintain conditions which enable private enterprise to make its full contribution to the development process;
(h) to further to the greatest degree possible, in a manner consistent with its goals, the balance-of-payments and employment objectives of the United States;
(i) to conduct its activities in consonance with the activities of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter and the international trade, investment, and financial policies of the United States Government, and to seek to support those developmental projects having positive trade benefits for the United States;
(j) to advise and assist, within its field of competence, interested agencies of the United States and other organizations, both public and private, national and international, with respect to projects and programs relating to the development of private enterprise in less developed countries and areas;
(1) to decline to issue any contract of insurance or reinsurance, or any guaranty, or to enter into any agreement to provide financing for an eligible investor’s proposed investment if the Corporation determines that such investment is likely to cause such investor (or the sponsor of an investment project in which such investor is involved) significantly to reduce the number of his employees in the United States production he is replacing his United States production with production from such investment which involves substantially the same product for substantially the same market as his United States production; and
(2) to monitor conformance with the representations of the investor on which the Corporation relied in making the determination required by clause (1);
(l) to decline to issue any contract of insurance or reinsurance, or any guaranty, or to enter into any agreement to provide financing for an eligible investor’s proposed investment if the Corporation determines that such investment is likely to cause a significant reduction in the number of employees in the United States;
(m) to refuse to insure, reinsure, or finance any investment subject to performance requirements which would reduce substantially the positive trade benefits likely to accrue to the United States from the investment; and
(n) to refuse to insure, reinsure, guarantee, or finance any investment in connection with a project which the Corporation determines will pose an unreasonable or major environmental, health, or safety hazard, or will result in the significant degradation of national parks or similar protected areas.
Source(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, § 231, as added Pub. L. 91–175, pt. I, § 105,Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 809; amended Pub. L. 93–390, § 2(1),Aug. 27, 1974, 88 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 95–268, § 2,Apr. 24, 1978, 92 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 97–65, § 2,Oct. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1021; Pub. L. 99–204, §§ 3, 4 (a),Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1669; Pub. L. 100–461, title V, § 555,Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–36; Pub. L. 102–549, title I, § 101,Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3651; Pub. L. 103–392, title I, § 105,Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4099.)
References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II
References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§ 2346 et seq.), VI (§ 2348 et seq.), and VIII (§ 2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) ofPub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 100–461is based on sections 102 and 110(a)(1) of title I of H.R. 5263, One Hundredth Congress, as passed by the House of Representatives on Sept. 20, 1988, and sections 102 and 110(a)(1) of title I of S. 2757, One Hundredth Congress, as reported Sept. 7, 1988, and enacted into law by Pub. L. 100–461.
A prior section 231 ofPub. L. 87–195, pt. 1, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 432, related to general authority of President to participate in financing of surveys of investment opportunities in less developed friendly countries, prior to the general reorganization of this subpart by Pub. L. 91–175, pt. I, § 105,Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 807.
1994—Pub. L. 103–392inserted “, Ireland, and Northern Ireland” after “title 19” in par. (2) of second undesignated par.
1992—Pub. L. 102–549, in first undesignated par., substituted “countries and areas, and countries in transition from nonmarket to market economies,” for “friendly countries and areas,”.
1988—Pub. L. 100–461, in par. (2) of second undesignated par., substituted “984 or less in 1986 United States dollars” for “$896 or less in 1983 United States dollars” and “$4,269 or more in 1986 United States dollars (other than countries designated as beneficiary countries under section 2702 of title 19)” for “$3,887 or more in 1983 United States dollars”.
Pub. L. 100–461, in par. (3) of second undesignated par., substituted “section 2151p of this title, section 2151p–1 of this title, and section” for “sections 2151p of this title and” and “tropical forests and endangered species” for “biological diversity”.
1985—Pub. L. 99–204, in second undesignated par., substituted “$896 or less in 1983 United States dollars” for “$680 or less in 1979 United States dollars” and “$3,887 or more in 1983 United States dollars” for “$2,950 or more in 1979 United States dollars” in par. (2), added par. (3), and added cl. (n).
1981—Pub. L. 97–65substituted “$680 or less in 1979 United States dollars” for “$520 or less in 1975 United States dollars” and “$2,950 or more in 1979 United States dollars” for “$1,000 or more in 1975 United States dollars” in par. (2) of undesignated paragraph covering the guidelines to be used with regard to operations in less developed countries, inserted “, and to seek to support those developmental projects having positive trade benefits for the United States” in cl. (i) of undesignated paragraph enumerating the activities of the Corporation, and, in that unnumbered paragraph, added cl. (m), relating to investments which would reduce positive trade benefits.
1978—Pub. L. 95–268inserted undesignated par. relating to determinations by the Corporation respecting insurance, financing, or reinsurance for a project, in cl. (e) designated existing provisions as subcl. (1) and, as so designated, substituted reference to guaranty activities for reference to financing activities and reference to small businesses for reference to businesses with a net worth of not more than $2,500,000 or with total assets of not more than $7,500,000, and added subcl. (2), struck out cl. (f) relating to encouragement and support of private investments for certain less developed friendly countries, redesignated former cls. (g) to (k) as (f) to (j), respectively, struck out former cl. (l) relating to preference by the Corporation for projects in countries having a per capita income of $450 or less in 1973 United States dollars, redesignated former cl. (m) as (k), and added cl. (n) which, as added, was redesignated as (l).
1974—Pub. L. 93–390, in introductory par., substituted “social development” for “social progress”, in cl. (a) inserted provisions for conducting insurance and reinsurance operations and substituted provisions requiring in financial operations consideration of economic and financial soundness of projects for provisions requiring consideration of economic and financial soundness of projects and availability of financing from other sources on appropriate terms, in cl. (d) substituted “efforts to share its insurance and reinsurance” for “when appropriate, efforts to share its insurance”, in cl. (e) substituted provisions requiring preferential treatment to investment projects involving businesses with enumerated net worth or total assets for provisions requiring utilization and encouragement for full participation in Corporation programs of small businesses, in cl. (i) inserted “and employment” before “objectives”, and added cls. (l) and (m).
Overseas Private Investment Corporation; Reaffirmation of Support
Pub. L. 100–418, title II, § 2203(a),Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1328, provided that: “The Congress reaffirms its support for the Overseas Private Investment Corporation as a United States Government agency serving important development assistance goals. In order to enhance the Corporation’s ability to meet these goals, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation should increase its loan guaranty and direct investment programs.”
Ex. Ord. No. 11579. Overseas Private Investment Corporation
Ex. Ord. No. 11579, Jan. 19, 1971, 36 F.R. 969, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055; Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, provided:
By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 424), as amended (hereinafter the “Act”) [section 2151 et seq. of this title] and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is ordered as follows:
Section 1. Transfer to Overseas Private Investment Corporation. All obligations, assets and related rights and responsibilities arising out of, or related to, predecessor programs and authorities similar to those provided for in sections 234(a), (b) and (d) of the Act [section 2194 (a), (b) and (d) of this title] are hereby transferred to the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (hereinafter the “Corporation”).
Sec. 2. Delegation of functions. (a) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673.]
(b) The function of prescribing regulations relating to the reinstatement or restoration of officers and employees of the Corporation to other government positions, when their appointment to a position in the Corporation was made from another government position and their separation from the Corporation was not made for cause, is hereby delegated to the Office of Personnel Management.
Sec. 3. Allocation and transfer of funds. Funds made available under section 232 of the Act (repealed by section 105 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1969) [section 2192 of this title] which are obligated but unexpended are hereby transferred to the Corporation.
Sec. 4. General provisions. (a) As used in this order, the words “function” or “functions” include any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, discretion, or activity.
(b) The Corporation shall be deemed to be the successor of the Agency for International Development and the Administrator thereof, with respect to all functions vested in the Corporation pursuant to law.
(c) Except to the extent that they may be inconsistent with this order, all determinations, authorizations, regulations, rulings, certificates, orders, directives, contracts, agreements, and other actions made, issued, or entered into with respect to any function affected by this order and not revoked, superseded or otherwise made inapplicable before the date of this order, shall continue in full force and effect until amended, modified, or terminated by appropriate authority.
(d) Executive Order No. 10973 of November 3, 1961, as amended [set out as a note under this section], is hereby superseded insofar as any provision therein is in conflict with any provision herein.
(e) The provisions of this order shall become effective upon adoption by the Board of Directors of bylaws for the Corporation.