22 U.S. Code § 2220a - General provisions
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(a) Congressional objectives and findings
The Congress declares that, in order to achieve the mutual goals among nations of ensuring food security, human health, agricultural growth, trade expansion, and the wise and sustainable use of natural resources, the United States should mobilize the capacities of the United States land-grant universities, other eligible universities, and public and private partners of universities in the United States and other countries, consistent with sections 2151a and 2151a–1 of this title, for:
(2) improved human capacity and institutional resource development for the global application of agricultural and related environmental sciences;
(3) agricultural development and trade research and extension services in the United States and other countries to support the entry of rural industries into world markets; and
(4) providing for the application of agricultural sciences to solving food, health, nutrition, rural income, and environmental problems, especially such problems in low-income, food deficit countries.
The Congress so declares because it finds—
(A) that the establishment, endowment, and continuing support of land-grant universities in the United States by Federal, State, and county governments has led to agricultural progress with and through the private sector in this country and to understanding processes of economic development;
(B) that land-grant and other universities in the United States have demonstrated over many years their ability to cooperate with international agencies, educational and research institutions in other countries, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations worldwide, in expanding global agricultural production, processing, business and trade, to the benefit of aid recipient countries and of the United States;
(C) that, in a world of growing populations with rising expectations, increased food production and improved distribution, storage, and marketing in the developing countries is necessary not only to prevent hunger and ensure human health and child survival, but to build the basis for economic growth and trade, and the social security in which democracy and a market economy can thrive, and moreover, that the greatest potential for increasing world food supplies and incomes to purchase food is in the developing countries where the gap between food need and food supply is the greatest and current incomes are lowest;
(D) that increasing and making more secure the supply of food is of greatest benefit to the poorest majority in the developing world;
(E) that, with expanding global markets and increasing imports into many countries, including the United States, food safety and quality, as well as secure supply, have emerged as mutual concerns of all countries;
(F) that research, teaching, and extension activities, and appropriate institutional and policy development therefore are prime factors in improving agricultural production, food distribution, processing, storage, and marketing abroad (as well as in the United States);
(G) moreover, that agricultural research abroad has in the past and will continue in the future to provide benefits for agriculture and the broader economy of the United States and that increasing the availability of food of higher nutritional quality is of benefit to all;
(H) that there is a need to responsibly manage the world’s agricultural and natural resources for sustained productivity, health and resilience to climate variability; and
(I) that universities and public and private partners of universities need a dependable source of funding in order to increase the impact of their own investments and those of their State governments and constituencies, in order to continue and expand their efforts to advance agricultural development in cooperating countries, to translate development into economic growth and trade for the United States and cooperating countries, and to prepare future teachers, researchers, extension specialists, entrepreneurs, managers, and decisionmakers for the world economy.
(b) Congressional declaration for collation of components to increase world food production
Accordingly, the Congress declares that, in order to prevent famine and establish freedom from hunger, the following components must be brought together in a coordinated program to increase world food and fiber production, agricultural trade, and responsible management of natural resources, including—
(1) continued efforts by the international agricultural research centers and other international research entities to provide a global network, including United States universities, for international scientific collaboration on crops, livestock, forests, fisheries, farming resources, and food systems of worldwide importance;
(2) contract research and the implementation of collaborative research support programs and other research collaboration led by United States universities, and involving research systems in other countries focused on crops, livestock, forests, fisheries, farming resources, and food systems, with benefits to the United States and partner countries;
(3) broadly disseminating the benefits of global agricultural research and development including increased benefits for United States agriculturally related industries through establishment of development and trade information and service centers, for rural as well as urban communities, through extension, cooperatively with, and supportive of, existing public and private trade and development related organizations;
(4) facilitation of participation by universities and public and private partners of universities in programs of multilateral banks and agencies which receive United States funds;
(5) expanding learning opportunities about global agriculture for students, teachers, community leaders, entrepreneurs, and the general public through international internships and exchanges, graduate assistantships, faculty positions, and other means of education and extension through long-term recurring Federal funds matched by State funds; and
(6) competitive grants through universities to United States agriculturalists and public and private partners of universities from other countries for research, institution and policy development, extension, training, and other programs for global agricultural development, trade, and responsible management of natural resources.
(c) University involvement, participation, and cooperation
The United States should—
(1) effectively involve the United States land-grant and other eligible universities more extensively in each of the program components described in paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (b) of this section;
(2) provide mechanisms for the universities and public and private partners of universities to participate and advise in the planning, development, implementation, and administration of each component;
(3) assist such universities and public and private partners of universities in cooperative joint efforts with—
(4) generally engage the United States university community more extensively in the agricultural research, trade, and development initiatives undertaken outside the United States, with the objectives of strengthening its capacity to carry out research, teaching, and extension activities for solving problems in food production, processing, marketing, and consumption in agriculturally developing nations, and for transforming progress in global agricultural research and development into economic growth, trade, and trade benefits for aid recipient countries and United States communities and industries, and for the wise use of natural resources; and
As used in this subpart, the term “universities” means those colleges or universities in each State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, now receiving, or which may hereafter receive, benefits under the Act of July 2, 1862 (known as the First Morrill Act) [7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], or the Act of August 30, 1890 (known as the Second Morrill Act) [7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.], which are commonly known as “land-grant” universities; institutions now designated or which may hereafter be designated as sea-grant colleges under the Act of October 15, 1966 (known as the National Sea Grant College and Program Act) [33 U.S.C. 1121 et seq.], which are commonly known as sea-grant colleges; Native American land-grant colleges as authorized under the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 301 note); and other United States colleges and universities which—
(1) have demonstrable capacity in teaching, research, and extension (including outreach) activities in the agricultural sciences; and
As used in this subpart, the term “Administrator” means the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.
(f) Public and private partners of universities
As used in this subpart, the term “public and private partners of universities” includes entities that have cooperative or contractual agreements with universities, which may include formal or informal associations of universities, other education institutions, United States Government and State agencies, private voluntary organizations, nongovernmental organizations, firms operated for profit, nonprofit organizations, multinational banks, and, as designated by the Administrator, any organization, institution, or agency incorporated in other countries.
As used in this subpart, the term “agriculture” includes the science and practice of activity related to food, feed, and fiber production, processing, marketing, distribution, utilization, and trade, and also includes family and consumer sciences, nutrition, food science and engineering, agricultural economics and other social sciences, forestry, wildlife, fisheries, aquaculture, floraculture, veterinary medicine, and other environmental and natural resources sciences.
As used in this subpart, the term “agriculturists” includes farmers, herders, and livestock producers, individuals who fish and others employed in cultivating and harvesting food resources from salt and fresh waters, individuals who cultivate trees and shrubs and harvest nontimber forest products, as well as the processors, managers, teachers, extension specialists, researchers, policymakers, and others who are engaged in the food, feed, and fiber system and its relationships to natural resources.
Source(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, § 296, as added Pub. L. 94–161, title III, § 312,Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 861; amended Pub. L. 95–424, title I, § 103(c),Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 106–373, § 2,Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1427.)
References in Text
The First Morrill Act and the Second Morrill Act, referred to in subsec. (d), refer to acts July 2, 1862, ch. 130, 12 Stat. 503, and Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 841, 26 Stat. 417, as amended, which are classified generally to subchapters I (§ 301 et seq.) and II (§ 321 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 13 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of these Acts to the Code, see Short Title notes set out under sections 301 and 321 of Title 7 and Tables.
The National Sea Grant College and Program Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is title II of Pub. L. 89–454, as added Pub. L. 89–688, § 1,Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 998, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 1121 et seq.) of chapter 22 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1121 of Title 33 and Tables.
The Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 103–382, title V, part C, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4048, as amended, which is set out as a note under section 301 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(a)(2)(A), in second sentence, redesignated pars. (1) to (7) as subpars. (A) to (G), respectively.
Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(a)(1), amended first sentence generally. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: “The Congress declares that, in order to prevent famine and establish freedom from hunger, the United States should strengthen the capacities of the United States land-grant and other eligible universities in program-related agricultural institutional development and research, consistent with sections 2151a and 2151a–1 of this title, should improve their participation in the United States Government’s international efforts to apply more effective agricultural sciences to the goal of increasing world food production, and in general should provide increased and longer term support to the application of science to solving food and nutrition problems of the developing countries.”
Subsec. (a)(A). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(a)(2)(B), substituted “with and through the private sector in this country and to understanding processes of economic development” for “in this country”.
Subsec. (a)(B). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(a)(2)(C), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “that land-grant and other universities in the United States have demonstrated over many years their ability to cooperate with foreign agricultural institutions in expanding indigenous food production for both domestic and international markets;”.
Subsec. (a)(C). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(a)(2)(D), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: “that, in a world of growing population with rising expectations, increased food production and improved distribution, storage, and marketing in the developing countries is necessary not only to prevent hunger but to build the economic base for growth, and moreover, that the greatest potential for increasing world food supplies is in the developing countries where the gap between food need and food supply is the greatest and current yields are lowest;”.
Subsec. (a)(E). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(a)(2)(E), (H), added subpar. (E) and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: “that research, teaching, and extension activities, and appropriate institutional development therefor are prime factors in increasing agricultural production abroad (as well as in the United States) and in improving food distribution, storage, and marketing;”.
Subsec. (a)(F). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(a)(2)(H), added subpar. (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (G).
Subsec. (a)(G). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(a)(2)(E), (G), (I), redesignated subpar. (F) as (G), substituted “and the broader economy of the United States” for “in the United States”, and struck out former subpar. (G) which read as follows: “that universities need a dependable source of Federal funding, as well as other financing, in order to expand, or in some cases to continue, their efforts to assist in increasing agricultural production in developing countries.”
Subsec. (a)(H), (I). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(a)(2)(F), (J), added subpars. (H) and (I).
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) contained declaration of Congress that various components had to be brought together in order to increase world food production.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(c)(1), substituted “each of the program components described in paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (b) of this section” for “each component”.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(c)(2)(A), inserted “and public and private partners of universities” after “for the universities”.
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(c)(3), inserted “and public and private partners of universities” after “such universities” in introductory provisions, added subpars. (C) to (E), and struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: “directed to strengthening their joint and respective capabilities and to engage them more effectively in research, teaching, and extension activities for solving problems in food production, distribution, storage, marketing, and consumption in agriculturally underdeveloped nations.”
Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(c)(2)(B), (4), added pars. (4) and (5).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(d)(1), inserted “Native American land-grant colleges as authorized under the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 301 note);” after “sea-grant colleges;” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(d)(2), substituted “extension (including outreach)” for “extension”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(e), inserted “United States” before “Agency”.
Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 106–373, § 2(f)—(h), added subsecs. (f) to (h).
1978—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 95–424struck out subsecs. (f) defining “agriculture”, and (g) defining “farmers”.
Effective Date of 1978 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 ofPub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.
Global Crop Diversity Trust
Pub. L. 110–246, title III, § 3202,June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1836, as amended by Pub. L. 113–79, title III, § 3206,Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 780, provided that:
“(a) Contribution.—The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall contribute funds to endow the Global Crop Diversity Trust (referred to in this section as the ‘Trust’) to assist in the conservation of genetic diversity in food crops through the collection and storage of the germplasm of food crops in a manner that provides for—
“(1) the maintenance and storage of seed collections;
“(2) the documentation and cataloguing of the genetics and characteristics of conserved seeds to ensure efficient reference for researchers, plant breeders, and the public;
“(3) building the capacity of seed collection in developing countries;
“(4) making information regarding crop genetic data publicly available for researchers, plant breeders, and the public (including through the provision of an accessible Internet website);
“(5) the operation and maintenance of a back-up facility in which are stored duplicate samples of seeds, in the case of natural or man-made disasters; and
“(6) oversight designed to ensure international coordination of those actions and efficient, public accessibility to that diversity through a cost-effective system.
“(b) United States Contribution Limit.—The aggregate contributions of funds of the Federal Government provided to the Trust shall not exceed 25 percent of the total amount of funds contributed to the Trust from all sources.
“(c) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $60,000,000 for the period of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.”
International Food Reserve
“(a) The Congress finds that—
“(1) half a billion people suffer regularly from malnutrition or undernutrition;
“(2) even very modest shortfalls in crop production can result in greatly increased human suffering, and undercut the benefits of bilateral and multilateral assistance programs, in poor developing countries with chronic food deficits;
“(3) increasing variability in world food production and trade presents a serious threat not only to consumers but also to producers;
“(4) the World Food Conference recognized the urgent need for an international undertaking to achieve a system of world food security based largely upon strategic food reserves;
“(5) the Congress through legislation has repeatedly urged the President to negotiate with other nations to establish such a system of reserves;
“(6) although the nations of the world have agreed to begin discussions on a system of grain reserves to regulate food availability, agreement on a global network of nationally held reserves still eludes the international community;
“(7) while some progress has taken place in the United States in creating domestic farmer held reserves, the scale of such reserves does not insure adequate protection against fluctuations in world production and price; and
“(8) the United States, as the world’s leading producer of foodstuffs, remains in a unique position to provide the leadership necessary to make world food security a reality.
“(b) It is therefore the sense of the Congress that the President should continue his efforts directed toward achievement of an agreement establishing an international network of nationally held grain reserves which provides for supply assurance to consumers and income security to producers.”
Similar provisions were contained in the following prior authorization act:
Commission on Hunger and Malnutrition
Pub. L. 95–426, title VII, § 711,Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 994, which authorized funds to be appropriated for fiscal years 1979 and 1980 for a commission to conduct studies on global hunger and malnutrition, which commission was to make recommendations to the President and Congress on policies to increase the capacity of the United States to reduce hunger and malnutrition, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–241, title V, § 505(a)(2),Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 299.
Settlement of Debt Owed the United States
Pub. L. 94–161, title III, § 321,Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 868, provided that: “No debt owed to the United States by any foreign country with respect to the payment of any loan made under any program funded under this Act [see Short Title of 1975 Amendment note set out under section 2151 of this title] may be settled in an amount less than the full amount of such debt unless the Congress by concurrent resolution approves of such settlement.”
Cooperation With Other Countries in Alleviating World Food Shortage; Emergency and Humanitarian Requirements
Pub. L. 93–189, § 39,Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 735, as amended by Pub. L. 110–246, title III, § 3001(c),June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1821, provided that:
“(a) It is the sense of the Congress that the United States should participate fully in efforts to alleviate current and future food shortages which threaten the world. To this end, the President shall—
“(1) encourage, support, and expedite, studies relating to the long-range implications of the world food situation (including studies of national and world production, distribution, and utilization of agricultural commodities and other foodstuffs) and support the organizing of a world food conference under United Nations auspices in 1974;
“(2) request the member nations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to explore the means for assuring equitable access by all nations to national markets and mineral and agricultural resources;
“(3) consult and cooperate with appropriate international agencies, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in determining the need for, the feasibility of, and cost on an equitably-shared basis of, establishing an international system of strategic food reserves; and
“(4) report his findings and recommendations to the Congress on the implementation of this section no later than December 31, 1974.
“(b) It is further the sense of the Congress that—
“(1) in making assessments which would affect or relate to the level of domestic production, the Executive Branch should include in the estimates of overall utilization the expected demands for humanitarian food assistance through such programs as are carried out under the Food for Peace Act (Public Law 480) [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.]; and
“(2) legislation providing increased flexibility for responding to emergency and humanitarian requirements for food assistance should be considered as promptly as possible to the end that the last sentence of section 401 of the Food for Peace Act (Public Law 480) [7 U.S.C. 1731], may be amended by striking the period and inserting in lieu thereof a comma and the following: ‘unless the Secretary determines that some part of the exportable supply should be used to carry out the national interest and humanitarian objectives of this Act [see Short Title of 1973 Amendment note set out under section 2151 of this title]’.”