23 U.S. Code § 136 - Control of junkyards
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(a) The Congress hereby finds and declares that the establishment and use and maintenance of junkyards in areas adjacent to the Interstate System and the primary system should be controlled in order to protect the public investment in such highways, to promote the safety and recreational value of public travel, and to preserve natural beauty.
(b) Federal-aid highway funds apportioned on or after January 1, 1968, to any State which the Secretary determines has not made provision for effective control of the establishment and maintenance along the Interstate System and the primary system of outdoor junkyards, which are within one thousand feet of the nearest edge of the right-of-way and visible from the main traveled way of the system, shall be reduced by amounts equal to 7 percent of the amounts which would otherwise be apportioned to such State under paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 104 (b), until such time as such State shall provide for such effective control. Any amount which is withheld from apportionment to any State hereunder shall be reapportioned to the other States. Whenever he determines it to be in the public interest, the Secretary may suspend, for such periods as he deems necessary, the application of this subsection to a State.
(c) Effective control means that by January 1, 1968, such junkyards shall be screened by natural objects, plantings, fences, or other appropriate means so as not to be visible from the main traveled way of the system, or shall be removed from sight.
(d) The term “junk” shall mean old or scrap copper, brass, rope, rags, batteries, paper, trash, rubber debris, waste, or junked, dismantled, or wrecked automobiles, or parts thereof, iron, steel, and other old or scrap ferrous or nonferrous material.
(e) The term “automobile graveyard” shall mean any establishment or place of business which is maintained, used, or operated for storing, keeping, buying, or selling wrecked, scrapped, ruined, or dismantled motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts.
(f) The term “junkyard” shall mean an establishment or place of business which is maintained, operated, or used for storing, keeping, buying, or selling junk, or for the maintenance or operation of an automobile graveyard, and the term shall include garbage dumps and sanitary fills.
(g) Notwithstanding any provision of this section, junkyards, auto graveyards, and scrap metal processing facilities may be operated within areas adjacent to the Interstate System and the primary system which are within one thousand feet of the nearest edge of the right-of-way and which are zoned industrial under authority of State law, or which are not zoned under authority of State law, but are used for industrial activities, as determined by the several States subject to approval by the Secretary.
(h) Notwithstanding any provision of this section, any junkyard in existence on the date of enactment of this section which does not conform to the requirements of this section and which the Secretary finds as a practical matter cannot be screened, shall not be required to be removed until July 1, 1970.
(j) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the relocation, removal, or disposal of junkyards lawfully established under State law. The Federal share of such compensation shall be 75 per centum.
(k) All public lands or reservations of the United States which are adjacent to any portion of the interstate and primary systems shall be effectively controlled in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(l) Nothing in this section shall prohibit a State from establishing standards imposing stricter limitations with respect to outdoor junkyards on the Federal-aid highway systems than those established under this section.
(m) There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, not to exceed $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, not to exceed $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1967, not to exceed $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970, not to exceed $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, not to exceed $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, and not to exceed $5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973. The provisions of this chapter relating to the obligation, period of availability, and expenditure of Federal-aid primary highway funds shall apply to the funds authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section after June 30, 1967.
Source(Added Pub. L. 89–285, title II, § 201,Oct. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 1030; amended Pub. L. 89–574, § 8(a),Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 90–495, § 6(e),Aug. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 91–605, title I, § 122(b),Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1726; Pub. L. 93–643, § 110,Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2285; Pub. L. 112–141, div. A, title I, § 1404(b),July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 557.)
2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–141, § 1404(b)(1), substituted “7 percent” for “10 per centum” and “paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 104 (b)” for “section 104 of this title”.
Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 112–141, § 1404(b)(2), added subsec. (n).
1975—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 93–643substituted provision that compensation shall be paid the owner for the relocation, removal, or disposal of junkyards lawfully established under State law, for provision relating to payment of just compensation for relocation, removal, or disposal of junkyards (1) lawfully in existence on Oct. 22, 1965, (2) lawfully along any highway made a part of the interstate or primary system on or after Oct. 22, 1965, and before Jan. 1, 1968, and (3) lawfully established on or after Jan. 1, 1968.
1970—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 91–605authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $3,000,000, $3,000,000, and $5,000,000, for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1971, 1972, and 1973, respectively.
1968—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 90–495inserted provision authorizing an appropriation of not to exceed $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970.
1966—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 89–574substituted provisions making applicable to the funds authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section after June 30, 1967, the provisions of chapter 1 of this title relating to the obligation, period of availability, and expenditure of Federal-aid primary highway funds for provisions prohibiting the use of any part of the Highway Trust Fund in carrying out this section.
Effective Date of 2012 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) ofPub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.
Effective Date of 1968 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 90–495effective August 23, 1968, see section 37 ofPub. L. 90–495, set out as a note under section 502 of this title.
Acquisition of Dwellings
Prohibition against the use of eminent domain to acquire any dwelling (including related buildings) under the terms of Pub. L. 89–285, see section 305 ofPub. L. 89–285, set out as a note under section 131 of this title.
Taking of Private Property Without Just Compensation