26 U.S. Code § 1474 - Special rules
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(a) Liability for withheld tax
Every person required to deduct and withhold any tax under this chapter is hereby made liable for such tax and is hereby indemnified against the claims and demands of any person for the amount of any payments made in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.
(b) Credits and refunds
(1) In general
Except as provided in paragraph (2), the determination of whether any tax deducted and withheld under this chapter results in an overpayment by the beneficial owner of the payment to which such tax is attributable shall be made as if such tax had been deducted and withheld under subchapter A of chapter 3.
(2) Special rule where foreign financial institution is beneficial owner of payment
(A) In general
In the case of any tax properly deducted and withheld under section 1471 from a specified financial institution payment—
(i) if the foreign financial institution referred to in subparagraph (B) with respect to such payment is entitled to a reduced rate of tax with respect to such payment by reason of any treaty obligation of the United States—
(I) the amount of any credit or refund with respect to such tax shall not exceed the amount of credit or refund attributable to such reduction in rate, and
(3) Requirement to identify substantial United States owners
No credit or refund shall be allowed or paid with respect to any tax properly deducted and withheld under this chapter unless the beneficial owner of the payment provides the Secretary such information as the Secretary may require to determine whether such beneficial owner is a United States owned foreign entity (as defined in section 1471 (d)(3)) and the identity of any substantial United States owners of such entity.
(c) Confidentiality of information
(1) In general
(d) Coordination with other withholding provisions
The Secretary shall provide for the coordination of this chapter with other withholding provisions under this title, including providing for the proper crediting of amounts deducted and withheld under this chapter against amounts required to be deducted and withheld under such other provisions.
(e) Treatment of withholding under agreements
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