26 U.S. Code § 280A - Disallowance of certain expenses in connection with business use of home, rental of vacation homes, etc.
Except as otherwise provided in this section, in the case of a taxpayer who is an individual or an S corporation, no deduction otherwise allowable under this chapter shall be allowed with respect to the use of a dwelling unit which is used by the taxpayer during the taxable year as a residence.
Subsection (a) shall not apply to any deduction allowable to the taxpayer without regard to its connection with his trade or business (or with his income-producing activity).
Subsection (a) shall not apply to any item to the extent such item is allocable to space within the dwelling unit which is used on a regular basis as a storage unit for the inventory or product samples of the taxpayer held for use in the taxpayer’s trade or business of selling products at retail or wholesale, but only if the dwelling unit is the sole fixed location of such trade or business.
Subsection (a) shall not apply to any item which is attributable to the rental of the dwelling unit or portion thereof (determined after the application of subsection (e)).
Subsection (a) shall not apply to any item to the extent that such item is allocable to the use of any portion of the dwelling unit on a regular basis in the taxpayer’s trade or business of providing day care for children, for individuals who have attained age 65, or for individuals who are physically or mentally incapable of caring for themselves.
If a portion of the taxpayer’s dwelling unit used for the purposes described in subparagraph (A) is not used exclusively for those purposes, the amount of the expenses attributable to that portion shall not exceed an amount which bears the same ratio to the total amount of the items allocable to such portion as the number of hours the portion is used for such purposes bears to the number of hours the portion is available for use.
Paragraphs (1) and (3) shall not apply to any item which is attributable to the rental of the dwelling unit (or any portion thereof) by the taxpayer to his employer during any period in which the taxpayer uses the dwelling unit (or portion) in performing services as an employee of the employer.
A taxpayer shall not be treated as using a dwelling unit for personal purposes by reason of a rental arrangement for any period if for such period such dwelling unit is rented, at a fair rental, to any person for use as such person’s principal residence.
Subparagraph (A) shall apply to a rental to a person who has an interest in the dwelling unit only if such rental is pursuant to a shared equity financing agreement.
For purposes of applying subsection (c)(5) to deductions allocable to a qualified rental period, a taxpayer shall not be considered to have used a dwelling unit for personal purposes for any day during the taxable year which occurs before or after a qualified rental period described in subparagraph (B)(i), or before a qualified rental period described in subparagraph (B)(ii), if with respect to such day such unit constitutes the principal residence (within the meaning of section 121) of the taxpayer.
In any case where a taxpayer who is an individual or an S corporation uses a dwelling unit for personal purposes on any day during the taxable year (whether or not he is treated under this section as using such unit as a residence), the amount deductible under this chapter with respect to expenses attributable to the rental of the unit (or portion thereof) for the taxable year shall not exceed an amount which bears the same relationship to such expenses as the number of days during each year that the unit (or portion thereof) is rented at a fair rental bears to the total number of days during such year that the unit (or portion thereof) is used.
The term “dwelling unit” includes a house, apartment, condominium, mobile home, boat, or similar property, and all structures or other property appurtenant to such dwelling unit.
In the case of an S corporation, subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (d)(2) shall be applied by substituting “any shareholder of the S corporation” for “the taxpayer” each place it appears.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to disallow any deduction allowable under section 162(a)(2) (or any deduction which meets the tests of section 162(a)(2) but is allowable under another provision of this title) by reason of the taxpayer’s being away from home in the pursuit of a trade or business (other than the trade or business of renting dwelling units).
1997—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–34, § 932(a), inserted at end “For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term ‘principal place of business’ includes a place of business which is used by the taxpayer for the administrative or management activities of any trade or business of the taxpayer if there is no other fixed location of such trade or business where the taxpayer conducts substantial administrative or management activities of such trade or business.”
Subsec. (d)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–34, § 312(d)(1), substituted “section 121” for “section 1034”.
1996—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, § 1704(t)(39), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “the principal place of business for any trade or business of the taxpayer.”
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–188, § 1113(a), substituted “inventory or product samples” for “inventory”.
1988—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 100–647 inserted “(or rental activity)” after “trade or business” in subpar. (B)(ii) and inserted at end “Any amount taken into account for any taxable year under the preceding sentence shall be subject to the limitation of the 1st sentence of this paragraph whether or not the dwelling unit is used as a residence during such taxable year.”
1986—Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, § 143(c), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “the deductions allocable to such use which are allowable under this chapter for the taxable year whether or not such unit (or portion thereof) was so used.”
Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, § 143(b), added par. (6).
1982—Subsecs. (a), (e)(1). Pub. L. 97–354, § 5(a)(26)(A), (B), substituted “an S corporation” for “an electing small business corporation”.
Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 97–354, § 5(a)(26)(C), substituted “shareholders of S corporation” for “electing small business corporation” in subsec. heading, substituted “an S corporation” for “an electing small business corporation” and “any shareholder of the S corporation” for “any shareholder of the electing small business corporation”.
Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 97–216 struck out “, etc.” after “section 162(a)(2)” in heading, struck out “(A) In general.—” before “Nothing in this section”, and struck out subpar. (B) which directed the Secretary to prescribe amounts deductible (without substantiation) pursuant to last sentence of section 162(a) and that no other provisions of this title could permit such a deduction for any taxable year of amounts in excess of the amounts determined to be appropriate under the circumstances.
1981—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–119, § 113(c), substituted “the principal place of business for any trade or business of the taxpayer” for “as the taxpayer’s principal place of business”.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 97–119, § 113(d), inserted in provision following subpar. (C) “, except that if the taxpayer is engaged in repair and maintenance on a substantially full time basis for any day, such authority shall not allow the Secretary to treat a dwelling unit as being used for personal use by the taxpayer on such day merely because other individuals who are on the premises on such day are not so engaged”.
Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 97–119, § 113(a), added par. (3), redesignated former par. (3) as (4) and struck out “to a person other than a member of the family (as defined in section 267(c)(4)) of the taxpayer” after “such unit is rented” in subpar. (B).
Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 97–119, § 113(b)(1), added par. (4).
1978—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 95–600 added par. (3).
1977—Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 95–30 added par. (4), redesignated former par. (4) as (5) and substituted “paragraph (1), (2), or (4)” for “paragraph (1) or (2)” in introductory provisions.
Amendment by section 312(d)(1) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997, with certain exceptions, see section 312(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
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