42 U.S. Code § 1395m–1 - Improving policies for clinical diagnostic laboratory tests
Beginning January 1, 2016, and every 3 years thereafter (or, annually, in the case of reporting with respect to an advanced diagnostic laboratory test, as defined in subsection (d)(5)), an applicable laboratory (as defined in paragraph (2)) shall report to the Secretary, at a time specified by the Secretary, applicable information (as defined in paragraph (3)) for a data collection period (as defined in paragraph (4)) for each clinical diagnostic laboratory test that the laboratory furnishes during such period for which payment is made under this part.
In this section, the term “applicable laboratory” means a laboratory that, with respect to its revenues under this subchapter, a majority of such revenues are from this section, section 1395l(h) of this title, or section 1395w–4 of this title. The Secretary may establish a low volume or low expenditure threshold for excluding a laboratory from the definition of applicable laboratory under this paragraph, as the Secretary determines appropriate.
Such term shall not include information with respect to a laboratory test for which payment is made on a capitated basis or other similar payment basis during the data collection period.
In this section, the term “data collection period” means a period of time, such as a previous 12 month period, specified by the Secretary.
In the case where an applicable laboratory has more than one payment rate for the same payor for the same test or more than one payment rate for different payors for the same test, the applicable laboratory shall report each such payment rate and the volume for the test at each such rate under this subsection. Beginning with January 1, 2019, the Secretary may establish rules to aggregate reporting with respect to the situations described in the preceding sentence.
An officer of the laboratory shall certify the accuracy and completeness of the information reported under this subsection.
If the Secretary determines that an applicable laboratory has failed to report or made a misrepresentation or omission in reporting information under this subsection with respect to a clinical diagnostic laboratory test, the Secretary may apply a civil money penalty in an amount of up to $10,000 per day for each failure to report or each such misrepresentation or omission.
Subject to paragraph (3) and subsections (c) and (d), in the case of a clinical diagnostic laboratory test furnished on or after January 1, 2017, the payment amount under this section shall be equal to the weighted median determined for the test under paragraph (2) for the most recent data collection period.
For each laboratory test with respect to which information is reported under subsection (a) for a data collection period, the Secretary shall calculate a weighted median for the test for the period, by arraying the distribution of all payment rates reported for the period for each test weighted by volume for each payor and each laboratory.
Payment amounts determined under this subsection for a clinical diagnostic laboratory test for each of 2017 through 2022 shall not result in a reduction in payments for a clinical diagnostic laboratory test for the year of greater than the applicable percent (as defined in subparagraph (B)) of the amount of payment for the test for the preceding year.
The payment amounts under this section shall not be subject to any adjustment (including any geographic adjustment, budget neutrality adjustment, annual update, or other adjustment).
In determining the payment amount under crosswalking or gapfilling processes under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider recommendations from the panel established under subsection (f)(1).
In the case of a clinical diagnostic laboratory test for which payment is made under this subsection, the Secretary shall make available to the public an explanation of the payment rate for the test, including an explanation of how the criteria described in paragraph (2) and paragraph (3) are applied.
In the case of an advanced diagnostic laboratory test for which payment has not been made under the fee schedule under section 1395l(h) of this title prior to April 1, 2014, during an initial period of three quarters, the payment amount for the test for such period shall be based on the actual list charge for the laboratory test.
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “actual list charge”, with respect to a laboratory test furnished during such period, means the publicly available rate on the first day at which the test is available for purchase by a private payor.
Subject to paragraph (4), data reported under paragraph (2) shall be used to establish the payment amount for an advanced diagnostic laboratory test after the initial period under paragraph (1)(A) using the methodology described in subsection (b). Such payment amount shall continue to apply until the year following the next data collection period.
With respect to the initial period described in paragraph (1)(A), if, after such period, the Secretary determines that the payment amount for an advanced diagnostic laboratory test under paragraph (1)(A) that was applicable during the period was greater than 130 percent of the payment amount for the test established using the methodology described in subsection (b) that is applicable after such period, the Secretary shall recoup the difference between such payment amounts for tests furnished during such period.
For purposes of tracking and monitoring, if a laboratory or a manufacturer requests a unique identifier for an advanced diagnostic laboratory test (as so defined) or a laboratory test that is cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration, the Secretary shall utilize a means to uniquely track such test through a mechanism such as a HCPCS code or modifier.
The Secretary shall continue to convene the annual meeting described in section 1395l(h)(8)(B)(iii) of this title after the implementation of this section for purposes of receiving comments and recommendations (and data on which the recommendations are based) as described in such section on the establishment of payment amounts under this section.
A medicare administrative contractor shall only issue a coverage policy with respect to a clinical diagnostic laboratory test in accordance with the process for making a local coverage determination (as defined in section 1395ff(f)(2)(B) of this title), including the appeals and review process for local coverage determinations under part 426 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations).
There shall be no administrative or judicial review under section 1395ff of this title, section 1395oo of this title, or otherwise, of the establishment of payment amounts under this section.
Chapter 35 of title 44 shall not apply to information collected under this section.
For purposes of implementing this section, the Secretary shall provide for the transfer, from the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund under section 1395t of this title, to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Program Management Account, for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018, $4,000,000, and for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023, $3,000,000. Amounts transferred under the preceding sentence shall remain available until expended.
During the period beginning on April 1, 2014, and ending on December 31, 2016, with respect to advanced diagnostic laboratory tests under this part, the Secretary shall use the methodologies for pricing, coding, and coverage in effect on the day before April 1, 2014, which may include cross-walking or gapfilling methods.
 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “laboratory”.
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