42 U.S. Code § 613 - Research, evaluations, and national studies
The Secretary, directly or through grants, contracts, or interagency agreements, shall conduct research on the benefits, effects, and costs of operating different State programs funded under this part, including time limits relating to eligibility for assistance. The research shall include studies on the effects of different programs and the operation of such programs on welfare dependency, illegitimacy, teen pregnancy, employment rates, child well-being, and any other area the Secretary deems appropriate. The Secretary shall also conduct research on the costs and benefits of State activities under section 607 of this title.
(b) Development and evaluation of innovative approaches to reducing welfare dependency and increasing child well-being
(1) In general
The Secretary may assist States in developing, and shall evaluate, innovative approaches for reducing welfare dependency and increasing the well-being of minor children living at home with respect to recipients of assistance under programs funded under this part. The Secretary may provide funds for training and technical assistance to carry out the approaches developed pursuant to this paragraph.
(c) Dissemination of information
The Secretary shall develop innovative methods of disseminating information on any research, evaluations, and studies conducted under this section, including the facilitation of the sharing of information and best practices among States and localities through the use of computers and other technologies.
(d) Annual ranking of States and review of most and least successful work programs
(1) Annual ranking of States
The Secretary shall rank annually the States to which grants are paid under section 603 of this title in the order of their success in placing recipients of assistance under the State program funded under this part into long-term private sector jobs, reducing the overall welfare caseload, and, when a practicable method for calculating this information becomes available, diverting individuals from formally applying to the State program and receiving assistance. In ranking States under this subsection, the Secretary shall take into account the average number of minor children living at home in families in the State that have incomes below the poverty line and the amount of funding provided each State for such families.
(2) Annual review of most and least successful work programs
The Secretary shall review the programs of the 3 States most recently ranked highest under paragraph (1) and the 3 States most recently ranked lowest under paragraph (1) that provide parents with work experience, assistance in finding employment, and other work preparation activities and support services to enable the families of such parents to leave the program and become self-sufficient.
(e) Annual ranking of States and review of issues relating to out-of-wedlock births
(1) In general
The Secretary shall annually rank States to which grants are made under section 603 of this title based on the following ranking factors:
(A) Absolute out-of-wedlock ratios
The ratio represented by—
(i) the total number of out-of-wedlock births in families receiving assistance under the State program under this part in the State for the most recent year for which information is available; over
(f) State-initiated evaluations
A State shall be eligible to receive funding to evaluate the State program funded under this part if—
(2) the Secretary determines that the design and approach of the evaluation is rigorous and is likely to yield information that is credible and will be useful to other States; and
(g) Report on circumstances of certain children and families
(1) In general
Beginning 3 years after August 22, 1996, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall prepare and submit to the Committees on Ways and Means and on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and to the Committees on Finance and on Labor and Resources of the Senate annual reports that examine in detail the matters described in paragraph (2) with respect to each of the following groups for the period after August 22, 1996:
(A) Individuals who were children in families that have become ineligible for assistance under a State program funded under this part by reason of having reached a time limit on the provision of such assistance.
(B) Children born after August 22, 1996, to parents who, at the time of such birth, had not attained 20 years of age.
(2) Matters described
The matters described in this paragraph are the following:
(A) The percentage of each group that has dropped out of secondary school (or the equivalent), and the percentage of each group at each level of educational attainment.
(C) The percentage of each group that has been convicted of a crime or has been adjudicated as a delinquent.
(D) The rate at which the members of each group are born, or have children, out-of-wedlock, and the percentage of each group that is married.
(E) The percentage of each group that continues to participate in State programs funded under this part.
(F) The percentage of each group that has health insurance provided by a private entity (broken down by whether the insurance is provided through an employer or otherwise), the percentage that has health insurance provided by an agency of government, and the percentage that does not have health insurance.
(h) Funding of studies and demonstrations
(1) In general
Out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, there are appropriated $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2012 for the purpose of paying—
(B) the cost of developing and evaluating innovative approaches for reducing welfare dependency and increasing the well-being of minor children under subsection (b) of this section;
(C) the Federal share of any State-initiated study approved under subsection (f) of this section; and
(D) an amount determined by the Secretary to be necessary to operate and evaluate demonstration projects, relating to this part, that are in effect or approved under section 1315 of this title as of August 22, 1996, and are continued after such date.
Of the amount appropriated under paragraph (1) for a fiscal year—
(A) 50 percent shall be allocated for the purposes described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1), and
(3) Demonstrations of innovative strategies
The Secretary may implement and evaluate demonstrations of innovative and promising strategies which—
(B) test performance-based grant-to-loan financing in which programs meeting performance targets receive grants while programs not meeting such targets repay funding on a prorated basis; and
(i) Child poverty rates
(1) In general
Not later than May 31, 1998, and annually thereafter, the chief executive officer of each State shall submit to the Secretary a statement of the child poverty rate in the State as of August 22, 1996, or the date of the most recent prior statement under this paragraph.
(2) Submission of corrective action plan
Not later than 90 days after the date a State submits a statement under paragraph (1) which indicates that, as a result of the amendments made by section 103 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, the child poverty rate of the State has increased by 5 percent or more since the most recent prior statement under paragraph (1), the State shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a corrective action plan in accordance with paragraph (3).
(3) Contents of plan
A corrective action plan submitted under paragraph (2) shall outline the manner in which the State will reduce the child poverty rate in the State. The plan shall include a description of the actions to be taken by the State under such plan.
(4) Compliance with plan
A State that submits a corrective action plan that the Secretary has found contains the information required by this subsection shall implement the corrective action plan until the State determines that the child poverty rate in the State is less than the lowest child poverty rate on the basis of which the State was required to submit the corrective action plan.
The Secretary shall prescribe regulations establishing the methodology by which a State shall determine the child poverty rate in the State. The methodology shall take into account factors including the number of children who receive free or reduced-price lunches, the number of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits households, and, to the extent available, county-by-county estimates of children in poverty as determined by the Census Bureau.
(j) Evaluation of welfare-to-work programs
The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development—
(A) shall develop a plan to evaluate how grants made under sections 603 (a)(5) and 612 (a)(3) of this title have been used;
(B) may evaluate the use of such grants by such grantees as the Secretary deems appropriate, in accordance with an agreement entered into with the grantees after good-faith negotiations; and
(C) is urged to include the following outcome measures in the plan developed under subparagraph (A):
(i) Placements in unsubsidized employment, and placements in unsubsidized employment that last for at least 6 months.
(2) Reports to the Congress
(A) In general
Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C), the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, shall submit to the Congress reports on the projects funded under section  603(a)(5) and 612(a)(3) of this title and on the evaluations of the projects.
(B) Interim report
Not later than January 1, 1999, the Secretary shall submit an interim report on the matter described in subparagraph (A).
(C) Final report
Not later than January 1, 2001,  (or at a later date, if the Secretary informs the Committees of the Congress with jurisdiction over the subject matter of the report) the Secretary shall submit a final report on the matter described in subparagraph (A).
 So in original. Probably should be “sections”.
 So in original.
Source(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, § 413, as added Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 103(a)(1),Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2153; amended Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §§ 5001(f), 5509, 5514 (c),Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 592, 618, 620; Pub. L. 105–200, title IV, § 410(a),July 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 673; Pub. L. 106–169, title IV, § 401(c),Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1858; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(D), (2)(V),May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1097; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(D), (2)(V),June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858; Pub. L. 112–96, title IV, § 4002(e),Feb. 22, 2012, 126 Stat. 195.)
References in Text
Section 103 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (i)(2), is section 103 ofPub. L. 104–193, which enacted this part, amended sections 602, 603, and 1308 of this title, and repealed provisions formerly set out as this part. For complete classification of section 103 to the Code, see Tables.
Pub. L. 110–234and Pub. L. 110–246made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234were repealed by section 4(a) ofPub. L. 110–246.
A prior section 613, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, § 413, as added June 9, 1980, Pub. L. 96–265, title IV, § 406(c), 94 Stat. 467, related to technical assistance for developing management information systems, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–193, § 103(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 105–33, title V, § 5514(c),Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 620.
2012—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 112–96substituted “fiscal year 2012” for “each of fiscal years 1997 through 2002” in introductory provisions.
2008—Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 110–246, § 4002(b)(1)(D), (2)(V), substituted “supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits” for “food stamp”.
1999—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 106–169made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to August 22, 1996.
1998—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 105–200substituted “Education and the Workforce” for “Economic and Educational Opportunities”.
1997—Pub. L. 105–33, § 5514(c), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 104–193, § 103(a)(1), which enacted this section.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(a), inserted “, directly or through grants, contracts, or interagency agreements,” before “shall conduct” and substituted “section 607” for “section 609”.
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(b), amended heading and text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:
“(A) In general.—The Secretary shall annually rank States to which grants are made under section 603 of this title based on the following ranking factors:
“(i) Absolute out-of-wedlock ratios.—The ratio represented by—
“(I) the total number of out-of-wedlock births in families receiving assistance under the State program under this part in the State for the most recent fiscal year for which information is available; over
“(II) the total number of births in families receiving assistance under the State program under this part in the State for such year.
“(ii) Net changes in the out-of-wedlock ratio.—The difference between the ratio described in subparagraph (A)(i) with respect to a State for the most recent fiscal year for which such information is available and the ratio with respect to the State for the immediately preceding year.”
Subsec. (h)(1)(D). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(c), substituted “August 22, 1996” for “September 30, 1995”.
Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(d)(1), substituted “May 31, 1998” for “90 days after August 22, 1996”.
Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(d)(2), substituted “, to the extent available, county-by-county” for “the county-by-county”.
Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5001(f), added subsec. (j).
Effective Date of 2008 Amendment
Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234by Pub. L. 110–246effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 ofPub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.
Amendment by section 4002(b)(1)(D), (2)(V) ofPub. L. 110–246effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 ofPub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.
Effective Date of 1999 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 106–169effective as if included in the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–193, see section 401(q) ofPub. L. 106–169, set out as a note under section 602 of this title.
Effective Date of 1997 Amendment
Amendment by section 5509 ofPub. L. 105–33effective as if included in section 103(a) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–193, at the time such section 103 (a) became law, see section 5518(a) ofPub. L. 105–33, set out as a note under section 602 of this title.
Amendment by section 5514(c) ofPub. L. 105–33effective as if included in the provision of Pub. L. 104–193amended at the time the provision became law, see section 5518(d) ofPub. L. 105–33, set out as a note under section 862a of Title 21, Food and Drugs.
Section effective Aug. 22, 1996, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 ofPub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as a note under section 601 of this title.
Coordination of Substance Abuse and Child Protection Services
Pub. L. 105–89, title IV, § 405,Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2135, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, based on information from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and the Administration for Children and Families in the Department of Health and Human Services, to submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report which described the extent and scope of the problem of substance abuse in the child welfare population, the types of services provided to such population, and the outcomes resulting from the provision of such services to such population, along with appropriate recommendations for legislative changes.
GAO Study of Effect of Family Violence on Need for Public Assistance
Pub. L. 105–33, title V, § 5001(i),Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 593, directed the Comptroller General to conduct a study of the effect of family violence on the use of public assistance programs, and in particular the extent to which family violence prolongs or increases the need for public assistance, and to submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress within 1 year after Aug. 5, 1997.
Study on Alternative Outcomes Measures
Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 107,Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2164, as amended by Pub. L. 105–33, title V, § 5511,Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 619, directed the Secretary, in cooperation with the States, to study and analyze outcomes measures for evaluating the success of the States in moving individuals out of the welfare system through employment as an alternative to the minimum participation rates described in 42 U.S.C. 607, and to submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress by Sept. 30, 1998.