49 U.S. Code § 14914 - Civil penalty procedures
(a) In General.— After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, a person found by the Surface Transportation Board to have violated a provision of law that the Board carries out or a regulation prescribed under that law by the Board that is related to transportation which occurs under subchapter II of chapter 135 for which a civil penalty is provided, is liable to the United States for the civil penalty provided. The amount of the civil penalty shall be assessed by the Board by written notice. In determining the amount of the penalty, the Board shall consider the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, ability to pay, and other matters that justice requires.
(b) Compromise.— The Board may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without consideration, a civil penalty until the assessment is referred to the Attorney General.
(c) Collection.— If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become final, the Board may refer the matter to the Attorney General for collection in an appropriate district court of the United States.