5 U.S. Code § 4103 - Establishment of training programs
(a) In order to assist in achieving an agency’s mission and performance goals by improving employee and organizational performance, the head of each agency, in conformity with this chapter, shall establish, operate, maintain, and evaluate a program or programs, and a plan or plans thereunder, for the training of employees in or under the agency by, in, and through Government facilities and non-Government facilities. Each program, and plan thereunder, shall—
(1) conform to the principles, standards, and related requirements contained in the regulations prescribed under section 4118 of this title;
(3) provide that information concerning the selection and assignment of employees for training and the applicable training limitations and restrictions be made available to employees of the agency; and
(4) provide for the encouragement of self-training by employees by means of appropriate recognition of resultant increases in proficiency, skill, and capacity.
Two or more agencies jointly may operate under a training program.
(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, an agency may train any employee of the agency to prepare the employee for placement in another agency if the head of the agency determines that such training would be in the interests of the Government.
(2) In selecting an employee for training under this subsection, the head of the agency shall consider—
(A) the extent to which the current skills, knowledge, and abilities of the employee may be utilized in the new position;
(B) the employee’s capability to learn skills and acquire knowledge and abilities needed in the new position; and
(c) The head of each agency shall, on a regular basis—
(1) evaluate each program or plan established, operated, or maintained under subsection (a) with respect to accomplishing specific performance plans and strategic goals in performing the agency mission; and
Source(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966. 80 Stat. 433; Pub. L. 95–454, title III, § 304,Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1146; Pub. L. 103–226, § 2(a)(2),Mar. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 111; Pub. L. 108–411, title II, § 201(a),Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2311.)
|Derivation||U.S. Code||Revised Statutes and Statutes at Large|
|5 U.S.C. 2306.||July 7, 1958, Pub. L. 85–507, § 7, 72 Stat. 331.|
The words “Within two hundred and seventy days after the date of enactment of this Act [July 7, 1958]” are omitted as obsolete.
In paragraph (1), reference to the effective date of the regulations is omitted as obsolete.
Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.
2004—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–411added subsec. (c).
1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–226, § 2(a)(2)(A)(i), in introductory provisions, substituted “In order to assist in achieving an agency’s mission and performance goals by improving employee and organizational performance, the head of each agency, in conformity with this chapter, shall establish, operate, maintain, and evaluate” for “In order to increase economy and efficiency in the operations of the agency and to raise the standards of performance by employees of their official duties to the maximum possible level of proficiency, the head of each agency, in conformity with this chapter, shall establish, operate, and maintain”.
Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 103–226, § 2(a)(2)(A)(ii)–(iv), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–226, § 2(a)(2)(B)(i), substituted “determines that such training would be in the interests of the Government.” for “determines that the employee will otherwise be separated under conditions which would entitle the employee to severance pay under section 5595 of this title.”
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–226, § 2(a)(2)(B)(ii), (iii), redesignated par. (3) as (2), in subpar. (C) substituted “such training” for “retaining the employee in the Federal service”, and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “Before undertaking any training under this subsection, the head of the agency shall obtain verification from the Office of Personnel Management that there exists a reasonable expectation of placement in another agency.”
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–226, § 2(a)(2)(B)(ii), redesignated par. (3) as (2).
1978—Pub. L. 95–454designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).
Effective Date of 1978 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 ofPub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.
Optional Participation of Federal Employees in AIDS Training Programs
“(a) In General.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a Federal employee may not be required to attend or participate in an AIDS or HIV training program if such employee refuses to consent to such attendance or participation, except for training necessary to protect the health and safety of the Federal employee and the individuals served by such employees. An employer may not retaliate in any manner against such an employee because of the refusal of such employee to consent to such attendance or participation.
“(b) Definition.—As used in subsection (a), the term ‘Federal employee’ has the same meaning given the term ‘employee’ in section 2105 of title 5, United States Code, and such term shall include members of the armed forces.”
Experimental Program Relating to Acceptance of Voluntary Services From Participants in Executive Exchange Program
Pub. L. 101–416, § 1,Oct. 12, 1990, 104 Stat. 902, authorized a 90-day extension of programs established under Pub. L. 99–424for individuals who were participating in the program on the expiration date.
Pub. L. 99–424, Sept. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 964, as amended by Pub. L. 101–87, Aug. 16, 1989, 103 Stat. 595, authorized President to establish an experimental program, to be conducted during fiscal years 1987 through 1990, under which voluntary services could be accepted by the Government, without regard to 31 U.S.C. 1342.
Department of Homeland Security
Exception from provisions of subsec. (a)(1) of this section of those elements of the Department of Homeland Security that are supervised by the Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection through the Department’s Assistant Secretary for Information Analysis, see Ex. Ord. No. 13286, § 86, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10632, set out as a note under section 111 of Title 6, Domestic Security.
Central Intelligence Agency
Exception of Central Intelligence Agency from certain provisions of subsec. (a)(1) of this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 10805, Feb. 18, 1959, 24 F.R. 1301, set out as a note under section 4102 of this title.
Ex. Ord. No. 11348. Further Training of Government Employees
Ex. Ord. No. 11348, Apr. 20, 1967, 32 F.R. 6335, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, provided:
By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code and by section 2 of the Act of July 7, 1958 (72 Stat. 327), it is ordered as follows:
Section 101. (a) As used in this order, the terms “agency”, “employee”, “Government”, and “training”, have meanings given to those terms, respectively, by section 4101 of Title 5, United States Code.
(b) “Interagency training” means training provided by one agency for other agencies or shared by two or more agencies.
Sec. 102. It is the policy of the Government of the United States to develop its employees through the establishment and operation of progressive and efficient training programs, thereby improving public service, increasing efficiency and economy, building and retaining a force of skilled and efficient employees, and installing and using the best modern practices and techniques in the conduct of the Government’s business.
Sec. 103. The Office of Personnel Management shall provide leadership and guidance to insure that the policy set forth in section 102 is carried out.
Part II—Office of Personnel Management Responsibilities
Sec. 201. The Office of Personnel Management shall plan and promote the development, improvement, coordination, and evaluation of training in accordance with chapter 41 of Title 5, United States Code, and with the policy set forth in section 102 of this order.
Sec. 202. In carrying out its responsibilities under chapter 41 of Title 5, United States Code, and section 201 of this order, the Office shall:
(a) Advise the President on means for furthering and strengthening programs of training;
(b) Counsel heads of agencies and other agency officials on the improvement of training;
(c) Assist agencies to develop sound programs and financial plans for training and provide advice, information, and assistance to agencies on planning, programming, budgeting, operating, and evaluating training programs;
(d) Identify functional areas in which new or expanded interagency training activity is needed and either conduct such training or arrange for agencies having the substantive competence to do so;
(e) Coordinate interagency training conducted by and for agencies (including agencies and portions of agencies excepted by section 4102 (a) of Title 5, United States Code);
(f) Encourage agencies to make appropriate use of non-Government training resources;
(g) Develop, install, and maintain a system to provide the training data needed to carry out its own functions and to provide staff assistance to the President; and
(h) Provide for identification and dissemination of findings of research into training technology and undertake or assign to other agencies, such research projects as may be needed.
Part III—Agency Responsibilities and Operations
Sec. 301. The head of each agency shall plan, program, budget, operate, and evaluate training programs in accordance with chapter 41 of Title 5, United States Code, and with the policy set forth in section 102 of this order.
Sec. 302. The head of each agency shall:
(a) Foster employee self-development by creating a work environment in which self-development is encouraged, by assuring that opportunities for training and self-study materials are reasonably available, where the employee is stationed, and by recognizing self-initiated improvement in performance;
(b) Provide training for employees without regard to race, creed, color, national origin, sex, or other factors unrelated to the need for training;
(c) Establish and make full use of agency facilities for training employees;
(d) Extend agency training programs to employees of other agencies (including agencies and portions of agencies excepted by section 4102 (a) of Title 5, United States Code) and assign his employees to interagency training whenever this will result in better training, improved service, or savings to the Government;
(e) Establish interagency training facilities in areas of substantive competence as arranged by the Office of Personnel Management; and
(f) Use non-Government training resources as appropriate.
Sec. 303. In carrying out his responsibilities, the head of each agency shall, consonant with chapter 41 of Title 5, United States Code, this order, and regulations of the Office of Personnel Management:
(a) Review periodically, but not less often than annually, the agency’s program to identify training needed to bring about more effective performance at the least possible cost;
(b) Conduct periodic reviews of individual employee’s training needs as related to program objectives;
(c) Conduct research related to training objectives and required for program improvement and effectiveness;
(d) Plan, program, and evaluate training for both short and longrange program needs by occupations, organizations, or other appropriate groups;
(e) Establish priorities for needed training, and provide for the use of funds and manhours in accordance with these priorities;
(f) Utilize the flexibility of work assignments to provide work experience which promotes growth leading to higher quality and greater quantity of work done;
(g) Establish training facilities and services as needed;
(h) Monitor the effectiveness with which self-development is encouraged and on-the-job training is provided at all levels; and
(i) Establish criteria for the selection of employees for training; and
(j) Approve the acceptance of any contributions, awards, or payments to employees authorized by section 401(b) of this order and regulations issued by the Office of Personnel Management.
Sec. 401. The following functions vested in the President are hereby delegated to the Office of Personnel Management:
(a) The authority under section 4102 (b)(1) of Title 5, United States Code, to designate any agency or part thereof, or any employee or employees therein, as excepted from any provision of chapter 41, of Title 5, United States Code, other than sections 4102, 4111 (b), and 4112; and to designate any such agency or part thereof, or any employee or employees therein previously excepted, as again subject to chapter 41 of Title 5, United States Code, or any provision of that chapter.
(b) The authority under section 4111 (a) of Title 5, United States Code, to fix by regulation the extent to which the contributions, awards, and payments referred to in that section may be made to and accepted by employees.
Sec. 402. The authority vested in the President by section 4101 (6)(B) of Title 5, United States Code, to designate a foreign government or international organization or instrumentality of either as eligible to provide training, is hereby delegated to the head of each agency for his employees except that each such designation shall be made only after the agency head concerned has obtained and given due consideration to the advice of the Department of State thereon prior to the first use of such training facility and thereafter periodically but not less often than once every three years.
Part V—Revocation of Prior Order
Sec. 501. Executive Order No. 10800 of January 15, 1959, is hereby revoked.
Executive Order No. 11451
Ex. Ord. No. 11451, Jan. 19, 1969, 34 F.R. 921, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, which established the President’s Commission on Personnel Interchange, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 12136, May 15, 1979, 44 F.R. 28771, formerly set out below.
Executive Order No. 12136
Ex. Ord. No. 12136, May 15, 1979, 44 F.R. 28771, which continued the President’s Commission on Personnel Interchange and renamed it the President’s Commission on Executive Exchange, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12493, Dec. 5, 1984, 49 F.R. 47819, formerly set out below.
Executive Order No. 12493
Ex. Ord. No. 12493, Dec. 5, 1984, 49 F.R. 47819, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12516, May 21, 1985, 50 F.R. 21417; Ex. Ord. No. 12602, July 15, 1987, 52 F.R. 27187, which continued the President’s Commission on Executive Exchange, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12760, § 2, May 2, 1991, 56 F.R. 21062, set out below.
Ex. Ord. No. 12574. Establishing Experimental Program Within President’s Commission on Executive Exchange
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, including the Executive Exchange Program Voluntary Services Act of 1986 (5 U.S.C. 4103 note, 100 Stat. 964), it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Establishment of the Program. Effective October 1, 1986, there is established, within the Executive Exchange Program of the President’s Commission on Executive Exchange, an experimental program under which Executive agencies of the government may accept voluntary services for the United States from private sector participants in the Executive Exchange Program.
Sec. 2. Program Limits. The experimental program shall be conducted during the fiscal years 1987 through 1989, and not more than ten individuals may commence participation in the program during any fiscal year. Acceptance of voluntary services from such individuals may not result in the displacement of any employee of the government.
Sec. 3. Participant Restrictions. An individual participating in the experimental program shall be considered an employee of the agency to which assigned for purposes of any laws, rules, and regulations of the United States, except that such individual shall not be covered by chapters 51, 53, 63, 83, 87, or 89 of title 5, United States Code, or any comparable provisions relating to classification, pay, leave, retirement, life insurance, or health benefits for employees of the government.Ronald Reagan.
Ex. Ord. No. 12760. President’s Commission on Executive Exchange
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. The President’s Commission on Executive Exchange is hereby abolished. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall be responsible for terminating the functions of the Commission, which shall be completed no later than September 30, 1991.
Sec. 2. Executive Order No. 12493 of December 5, 1984 is revoked.George Bush.
Ex. Ord. No. 13111. Using Technology To Improve Training Opportunities for Federal Government Employees
Ex. Ord. No. 13111, Jan. 12, 1999, 64 F.R. 2793, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13188, Jan. 12, 2001, 66 F.R. 5419; Ex. Ord. No. 13218, § 3(a), June 20, 2001, 66 F.R. 33628; Ex. Ord. No. 13316, § 3(a), Sept. 17, 2003, 68 F.R. 55255, provided:
Advances in technology and increased skills needs are changing the workplace at an ever increasing rate. These advances can make Federal employees more productive and provide improved service to our customers, the American taxpayers. We need to ensure that we continue to train Federal employees to take full advantage of these technological advances and to acquire the skills and learning needed to succeed in a changing workplace. A coordinated Federal effort is needed to provide flexible training opportunities to employees and to explore how Federal training programs, initiatives, and policies can better support lifelong learning through the use of learning technology.
To help us meet these goals, I am creating a task force on Federal training technology, directing Federal agencies to take certain steps to enhance employees’ training opportunities through the use of training technology, and an advisory committee on the use of training technology, which also will explore options for financing the training and post-secondary education needed to upgrade skills and gain new knowledge.
Therefore, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), and in furtherance of the purposes of Chapter 41 of title 5, United States Code, the Government Employees Training Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–507 [see Tables for classification]), as amended, and Executive Order 11348, “Providing for the Further Training of Government Employees,” [set out above] and in order to make effective use of technology to improve training opportunities for Federal Government employees, it is ordered as follows:
Section 1. Establishment of the President’s Task Force on Federal Training Technology. (a) The “President’s Task Force on Federal Training Technology” (Task Force) is established. The Task Force shall provide leadership regarding the effective use of technology in training and education; make training opportunities an integral part of continuing employment in the Federal Government; and facilitate the ongoing coordination of Federal activities concerning the use of technology in training. The Task Force shall consist of the heads of the following departments and agencies or their representatives: the Departments of State, the Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, and Education; the Office of Personnel Management, General Services Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space and Administration, Small Business Administration, and Social Security Administration; a representative from the Small Agency Council; and representatives from other relevant agencies and related Federal councils, as determined by the Chair and Vice Chair of the Task Force.
(b) Within 30 days of the date of this order, the head of each agency or council shall designate a senior official to serve as a representative to the Task Force. The representative shall report directly to the agency head or the President’s Management Council member on the agency’s or council’s activities under this order.
(c) The Director of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) shall be the Chair and the representative from the Department of Labor shall be the Vice Chair of the Task Force.
(d) The Chair and Vice Chair shall appoint an Executive Director.
(e) The Task Force member agencies shall provide any required staffing and funding, as appropriate.
Sec. 2. Duties of the Task Force. (a) Within 18 months of the date of this order, the Task Force shall develop and recommend to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, a policy to make effective use of technology to improve training opportunities for Federal Government employees. The policy should promote and integrate the effective use of training technologies to create affordable and convenient training opportunities to improve Federal employee performance. The Task Force shall seek the views of experts from industry, academia, and State and local governments as the Task Force proceeds, as appropriate. Specifically, the Task Force shall:
(1) develop strategies to improve the efficiency and availability of training opportunities for Federal Government employees;
(2) form partnerships among key Federal agencies, State and local governments, businesses, universities, and other appropriate entities to promote the development and use of high-quality training opportunities;
(3) analyze the use of technology in existing training programs and policies of the Task Force member agencies to determine what changes, modifications, and innovations may be necessary to advance training opportunities;
(4) in consultation with the Department of Defense and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, recommend standards for training software and associated services purchased by Federal agencies and contractors. These standards should be consistent with voluntary industry consensus-based commercial standards. Agencies, where appropriate, should use these standards in procurements to promote reusable training component software and thereby reduce duplication in the development of courseware;
(5) evaluate and, where appropriate, coordinate and collaborate on, research and demonstration activities of Task Force member agencies related to Federal training technology;
(6) identify and support cross-agency training areas that would particularly benefit from new instructional technologies and facilitate multiagency procurement and use of training materials, where appropriate;
(7) in consultation with the General Services Administration, the Office of Personnel Management, and the Office of Federal Procurement Policy of the Office of Management and Budget (OFPP), promote existing and new procurement vehicles that allow agencies to provide innovative training opportunities for Federal employees;
(8) recommend changes that may be needed to existing procurement laws to further the objectives of this order and forward the recommendations to the Administrator of OFPP; and
(b) develop options and recommendations for establishing a Federal Individual Training Account for each Federal worker for training relevant to his or her Federal employment. To the extent permitted by law, such accounts may be established with the funds allocated to the agency for employee training. Approval for training would be within the discretion of the individual employee’s manager. Options and recommendations shall be reported no later than 6 months from the date of this order.
Sec. 3. Duties of All Federal Agencies. (a) Each Federal agency shall, to the extent permitted by law:
(1) include as part of its annual budget process a set of goals to provide the highest quality and most efficient training opportunities possible to its employees, and a set of performance measures of the quality and availability of training opportunities possible to its employees. Such measures should be, where appropriate, based on outcomes related to performance rather than time allocation;
(2) identify the resources necessary to achieve the aforementioned goals and performance measures articulated in its annual performance plan;
(3) and, where practicable, use the standards recommended by the Task Force and published by the Office of Personnel Management for purchasing training software and associated services; and
(4) subject to the availability of appropriations, post training courses, information, and other learning opportunities on the Department of Labor’s America’s Learning Exchange (ALX), or other appropriate information dissemination vehicles as determined by the Task Force, to make information about Federal training courses, information, and other learning opportunities widely available to Federal employees.
(b) Each Federal agency, to the extent permitted by law, is encouraged to consider how savings achieved through the efficient use of training technology can be reinvested in improved training for their employees.
Sec. 4. Duties of Specific Federal Agencies. (a) In light of the Office of Personnel Management’s responsibility for developing Government-wide training policy, coordinating and managing training policy programs, and providing technical assistance to Federal agencies, the Office of Personnel Management or other appropriate agency as determined by the Task Force shall:
(1) in consultation with the Task Force, the Department of Defense, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Department of Labor, and other appropriate agencies as determined by OPM, publish the standards for training software and associated services recommended by the Task Force; and
(2) ensure that qualification standards for civil service positions, where appropriate, reflect standard industry certification practices.
(b) The Department of Labor or other appropriate agency as determined by the Task Force shall, subject to the availability of appropriations:
(1) establish a specialized database for Federal training within the framework of the Department of Labor’s ALX, or other appropriate information dissemination vehicles determined by the Task Force, to make information about Federal training courses, information, and other learning opportunities widely available to Federal employees;
(2) establish and maintain a training technology website for agencies to post training needs and to foster communication among the agencies and between public and private sector organizations to identify and meet common needs; and
(3) establish a staffed help desk and technology resource center to support Federal agencies using training technology and to facilitate the development of online training courses.
(c) The Department of Defense or other appropriate agency as determined by the Task Force shall:
(1) in consultation with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, lead Federal participation in business and university organizations charged with developing consensus standards for training software and associated services and lead the Federal review of the standards; and
(2) provide guidance to Defense agencies and advise the civilian agencies, as appropriate, on how best to use these standards for large-scale development and implementation of efficient and effective distributed learning technologies.
(d) Each Executive department shall designate at least one subject area of training that it will use to demonstrate opportunities in technology-based training and assign an agency leader in the designated area. Leaders in these training technology experiments shall work closely with other agencies with similar training interests. Each Executive department shall develop a plan for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and benefits to employees and the agency for each designated subject area.
[Secs. 5 to 7. Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13316, § 3(a), Sept. 17, 2003, 68 F.R. 55255, eff. Sept. 30, 2003.]
Sec. 8. Definitions. (a) As used in this order, the terms “agency,” “employee,” “Government,” and “training” have the meaning given to those terms, respectively, by section 4101 of title 5, United States Code.
(b) The term “technology,” means any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information, including computers, ancillary equipment, software, firmware and similar procedures, services (including support services), and related resources. For purposes of the preceding sentence, equipment is used by an Executive agency if the equipment is used by the Executive agency directly or is used by a contractor under a contract with the Executive agency that requires the use of such equipment. The term “technology” does not include any equipment that is acquired by a Federal contractor incidental to a Federal contract.
Sec. 9. Judicial Review. This order does not create any enforceable rights against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.