business organizations

gun jumping

Gun jumping refers to unlawful activities by a company awaiting regulatory approval for a transaction. The term arises in the context of (1) securities regulation and (2) anti-trust regulation.

(1) Gun jumping in Securities Regulation...

Hiring Firm

Commonly refers to a business that hires one or more independent contractors. Unlike an employer, a hiring firm does not have to withhold tax, contribute to Social Security and Medicare, or provide workers compensation for an independent contractor,...

Holding Company

A holding company is a company that owns part, a majority, or all of another company’s stock with the sole purpose of owning other companies’ stock. A company is a personal holding company for the purposes of Section 542 of the Internal Revenue Code...

Horizontal Scheme

A cooperation agreement between competitors on the same level of commerce. A horizontal scheme violates antitrust law if it involves price-fixing or any other recognized restraint on trade.

See Antitrust Law


Inchoate means something that is partially complete. In other words, it means something that has begun but has not been completed, such as a potential crime for which all the elements have not been accomplished, or a contract that has not...


The legal process of creating a corporation. Typically, this involves one or more incorporators filing the Articles of Incorporation with the Secretary of State in which incorporation is desired and paying required fees.

See also:

Articles of...


1. Formed into a legal corporation. Both private and public entities may become incorporated. See Corporation, Municipality, Artificial person, and Natural person.

2. Combined or mixed in with something else. Thus, in constitutional law, an...


Any individual who files the articles of incorporation on behalf of a business, thereby incorporating the business.

See also

IncorporateArticles of Incorporation

initial public offering (IPO)

An initial public offering (IPO) is when a private company publicly offers securities for the first time.


Prior to conducting an IPO, a company is considered private, meaning it does not need...



The purchase of a financial instrument or asset in the hopes of it producing income for the purchaser through profit or generating more business in the future.

See alsoProfitInstrument