business organizations


A cartel is a group of independent corporations or other entities that join together to fix prices, rig bids, allocate markets, or conduct other similar illegal activities. Cartel conducts are mainly subject to criminal penalties under United States...

Cash Method of Accounting

An accounting method where income is included when it is actually received and deductions claimed when expenses are actually paid.

Certificate of Formation


See: Articles of organization.

Certificate of Incorporation


In New York, the term used for “articles of incorporation”.

Certificate of Organization


See: Articles of organization.

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy

When a company can no longer pay its debts, it generally creates a relationship between two stakeholders–the debtor and creditors. The debtor seeks relief from the debt it cannot repay, while the creditors seek to recollect their debts, quickly and...

Chapter 13 Bankruptcy

In general, insolvent individuals have the choice of either a chapter 7 or chapter 13 bankruptcy, each governed by the United States Bankruptcy Code. Chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Code is titled "Adjustment of Debts of an Individual With Regular...

Chapter 13 plan

Chapter 13 of the United States Bankrupcty Code allows individuals with regular income to develop a plan to repay some or all of their debts. Debtors are required under this chapter to propose a repayment plan to make installment payments from the...

Chapter 7 Bankruptcy

When a debtor becomes insolvent and the bankruptcy proceeding begins, the debtor will either liquidate its assets or reorganize its debts. The liquidation route is governed by Chapter 7 of the Bankruptcy Code.

In a liquidation, the assets of...

Charitable Organization

A charitable organization is a nonprofit organization that seeks to advance some public benefit. Public benefit includes a broad range of areas such as education, poverty alleviation, scientific research, environment, diversity, religion, and...