Child Status Protection Act (CSPA)

The Child Status Protection Act (CSPA) amends the Immigration and Nationality Act by permitting an applicant for certain benefits to retain classification as a “child” under the Act, even if he or she has reached the age of 21. Prior to CSPA, once a child turned 21 years of age, that child "aged-out" and was no longer able to immigrate (or adjust status) along with his family. CSPA eliminates this problem by "freezing the age" of immediate relative children when their petitioning U.S.

Public Law 107-208, 116 Stat. 927

Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009

A federal law that gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the power to regulate the contents of tobacco products, disclose the ingredients of these products, and prohibit marketing campaigns that target children. Under this law, the agency can lower the amount of nicotine allowed in tobacco products, ban candy flavorings that appeal to kids, and block labels such "low tar" and "light." The law also requires tobacco companies to use large, graphic warnings on their cartons.

Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009

A consumer protection law also called the Credit CARD Act. Among its provisions is a prohibition against retroactive rate increases, a requirement that terms be clearly spelled out, and an extension of time before late fees can be imposed. The law also increases protections for students and young people when it comes to new credit card offers.

Federal Land Policy and Management Act

Passed in 1976, it provides a framework for the management of federal public lands. The Act recognized the value of the public lands and stated that they should be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of the American people on the basis of sustained yield and multiple use ("utilized in the combination that will best meet the present and future needs of the American people").

separation of church and state

A phrase most famously used by Supreme Court Justice Black in the case of Everson v. Board of Education. In discussing the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, Justice Black said that the clause erected a "wall of separation between church and state." He explained that this means, among other things, that the government cannot participate in the affairs of a religious group, set up a church, aid or prefer one religion over another, or aid or prefer religion over nonreligion.


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