CIVICS

Aye

Yes. Used to describe an affirmative vote or the voter who cast it. Pronounced "eye."

See Yea and Nay.

Baker v. Carr (1962)

A Supreme Court case that held that federal courts could hear cases that claimed that malapportionment of state legislatures violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution. By holding that such cases were justiciable, the Supreme Court paved...

ballot

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary1) A method or process of casting a vote. 2) The actual paper, card, or machine that indicates a voter's choices in an election. 3) The total number of votes cast in an election. 4) A list of candidates...

Bankruptcy

Overview

Bankruptcy law provides for the reduction or elimination of certain debts, and can provide a timeline for the repayment of nondischargeable debts over time. It also permits individuals and organizations to repay secured debt--typically debt...

Bankruptcy court

There are 94 federal judicial districts. Each of these handle bankruptcy matters. In almost every district, bankruptcy courts hear bankruptcy cases and bankruptcy cases cannot be filed in state court. Bankruptcy laws help debtors who can no longer...

Bankruptcy power

The Constitution authorizes Congress under Article I, Section 8, Clause 4 with power "to establish uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States".

See congressional powers

Bilateral investment treaty

Bilateral investment treaties (or, BITs) are international agreements establishing the terms and conditions for private investment by nationals and companies of one state in another state.

The first generation of these treaties were Friendship,...

Bill of lading

Document used in foreign trade, which acknowledges that a company has received goods for transportation.

Bill of Rights

The first ten Amendments to the Constitution, which set out individual rights and liberties. Though these rights originally only applied to the federal government, through the legal doctrine of incorporation, most of the Bill of Rights is now applied...

Biological experiments

Subjecting people to biological experiments without consent, when perpetrated in an armed conflict, is a war crime punishable by the International Criminal Court. A prosecution for biological experiments must show the following elements:

One or more...

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