CIVICS

Woodson v. North Carolina (1976)

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA U.S. Supreme Court case in which a mandatory death penalty for first degree murder was ruled unconstitutional because a defendant has the right to individual consideration of the facts in the case when...

work credits

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryTo receive any kind of Social Security benefit -- retirement, disability, dependents, or survivors -- the person on whose record the benefit is to be calculated must have accumulated enough work credits....

work permit

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionarySee: Employment Authorization Document (EAD)

Definition provided by Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary.

World Court

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryThe International Court of Justice, a judicial tribunal established by the United Nations to hear disputes submitted by nations and to issue advisory opinions upon request of a United Nations organ, such...

write-off

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA tax-deductible expense, usually referring to depreciating the cost of an asset used in business or taking a Section179 expense for that asset.

Definition provided by Nolo’s Plain-English Law...

Yea

Definition

Yes. The word "yea" is used in oral voting and also written or spoken when announcing vote results.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. John Doe No. 1 v. Reed, 130 S.Ct. 2811, 2833–34 (2010).

See also

Aye

Nay (contrast)

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952)

Definition

A U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court held that President Truman lacked either constitutional or statutory authority to seize the nation's strike-bound steel mills (the Court noted, however, that Congress would have had constitutional...

Zambrano

Definition

A '90s class action case in which plaintiffs, undocumented aliens, challenged I.N.S. regulations for allegedly, unduly restricting the eligibility of undocumented aliens who might become public charges for legalization under the Immigration...

Zero tape

Definition

A printout that shows that no votes have been cast on a voting machine prior to a poll's opening.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. NAACP of Pennsylvania v. Cortes, 591 F.Supp.2d 757, 761 (E.D.Pa. 2008).

See also

Poll

Voting...

Zoning ordinance

Definition

A municipal law that outlines permitted uses for various sections of land. Thus, some parts of a city may be dedicated to industrial use, while others may be set aside for residential or commercial use only. A zoning ordinance may also...

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