civil rights

Fair Housing Act & Fair Housing Amendments Act

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary

Definition provided by Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary.

Fourteenth Amendment


The Fourteenth Amendment contains a number of important concepts, most famously state action, privileges & immunities, citizenship, due process, and equal protection—all of which are contained in Section One. However, the Fourteenth...

Fundamental Right


Fundamental rights are a group of rights that have been recognized by the Supreme Court as requiring a high degree of protection from government encroachment. These rights are specifically identified in the Constitution (especially in the Bill...

Furman v. Georgia (1972)

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary

The U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that the death penalty was unconstitutional because states imposed it in an arbitrary -- and sometimes racially biased -- manner. The Court also...

Gitlow v. New York (1925)

A U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that the First Amendment right to free speech applied to state laws under the Fourteenth Amendment.

Graham v. Richardson

403 U.S. 365 (1971)

State attempts to deny welfare benefits to legally resident aliens violate the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the exclusive powers of the federal government in immigration matters. When...

Griggs v. Duke Power Co. (1971)

The U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court established that neutral employment practices that have a discriminatory effect can violate Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, even if the employer did not intend to discriminate.

Full text:...

Hot Pursuit

An exception to the general rule that police officers need an arrest warrant before they can enter a home to make an arrest. If a felony has just occurred and an officer has chased a suspect to a private house, the officer can forcefully enter the...

Hustler Magazine, Inc. v. Falwell (1988)

The U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court extended First Amendment free speech protections to those who make parodies of public figures, in this case fundamentalist Protestant minister Jerry Falwell.

Full text: Hustler Magazine, Inc. v....

Knock and announce


See knock-and-announce rule.