civil rights

Knock and announce


See knock-and-announce rule.

Knock-and-announce rule


Under the common law knock-and-announce rule, a police officer executing a search warrant generally must not immediately force his or her way into a residence. Instead, the officer must first knock, identify himself or herself and his or her...

Korematsu v. United States (1944)


A World War II-era U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court held that excluding all persons of Japanese ancestry from designated military areas was constitutional.

Illustrative caselaw

Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944);...

Kwong Hai Chew v. Colding

344 U.S. 590 (1953)

The Supreme Court held that the Attorney General did not have the authority to order the permanent exclusion and deportation of a lawful permanent resident of the United States without providing notice of the charges against him...


The term “liberty” appears in the due process clauses of both the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution. As used in Constitution, liberty means freedom from arbitrary and unreasonable restraint upon an individual....

Liberty interest

A right that the Due Process Clauses of the state and federal constitutions confer on an individual.

Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009

An act named after plaintiff Lilly Ledbetter of the Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. case which facilitated the process of bringing suit for plaintiffs challenging sex-based pay discrimination by renewing the 180-...

Loving v. Virginia (1967)

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary

The U.S. Supreme Court decision that struck down as unconstitutional laws prohibiting interracial marriage.

Full text: Loving v. Virginia (Nolo)

Definition provided by Nolo’s Plain-English Law...


Generally, a majority means a number greater than half of the total, in other words more than 50%. During elections, this is called an absolute majority. Candidates could also only require a relative majority or a qualified majority, depending on the...



See Civil rights, Affirmative action.


See Minor.