civil rights

Miranda Rule

See Miranda warning.

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

The Supreme Court held that the custodial interrogation of an individual must be accompanied by an instruction that the person has the right to remain silent, any statements made can be used against the person, and that the individual has the right to...

Miranda Warning


"Miranda warning" refers to the constitutional requirement that once an individual is detained by the police, there are certain warnings a police officer is required to give to a detainee.

Miranda v. Arizona

The requirement to give Miranda...


To read or recite a Miranda warning.


Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary A description of material that the average person, applying contemporary standards in their community, would find appeals to the prurient interest in sex, with no legitimate artistic, literary, or...


Obscenity is a category of speech unprotected by the First Amendment. Obscenity laws are concerned with prohibiting lewd, filthy, or disgusting words or pictures. Indecent materials or depictions, normally speech or artistic expressions, may be...

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)


The Supreme Court case, since overturned by Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which upheld the constitutionality of “separate, but equal facilities” based on race.


Louisiana had adopted a law in 1890 that...

Prisoners' rights


Federal and state laws govern the establishment and administration of prisons as well as the rights of the inmates. Although prisoners do not have full constitutional rights, they are protected by the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against...

Protected class

A class of individuals to whom Congress or a state legislature has given legal protection against discrimination or retaliation.


Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary1) To complain in a public way about an act, such as sending troops overseas, use of the death penalty, or adoption of a regulation or law. 2) To dispute the amount of property taxes, the assessed...