The third amendment to the constitution prohibits, in peacetime, the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the consent of the owner of the home. It states that "[n]o Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law."
Different treatment for similarly situated parties, especially when no legitimate reason appears to exist. An employer who rejects all male applicants and hires the first female applicant with the same qualifications might be discriminating on the basis of gender. The more repugnant the discrimination, the more likely it is to be found unlawful under the U.S. Constitution or some other law.
When a member of a non-minority group claims that someone (such as an employer) has discriminated against the person.
In a discrimination case, this when a court orders an employer to rehire an employee as a remedy.
A class of individuals to whom Congress or a state legislature has given legal protection against discrimination or retaliation.
When one particular set individuals whose members are of a protected class is treated differently than others.
A test or other tool used for selection that, though appearing neutral, actually has an adverse effect on a particular protected class of individuals.
Clauses in the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments that provide Congress with the power to enforce those amendments by means of "appropriate legislation".