civil rights

Second Amendment

The Second Amendment of the United States Constitution reads: "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed." Such language has created considerable...

Section 1981

Section 1981 is a shorthand reference to 42 U.S.C. § 1981, which derives from Section 1 of the 1866 Civil Rights Act. The statute establishes that certain rights are to be guaranteed to all citizens of the United States, and these rights are...

Section 504

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary

A section of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that protects the rights of individuals with disabilities who are involved in programs or activities that receive federal money. Settings in which Section...

Separation of church and state

Separation of Church and State is a phrase that refers to the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. The phrase dates back to the early days of U.S. history, and Thomas Jefferson referred to the First Amendment as creating a “wall of...

serious health condition

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryUnder the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), eligible employees may take leave for their own serious health condition or to care for a family member with a serious health condition. A serious health...

Shelley v. Kraemer (1948)

Shelley v. Kraemer (1948) is a U.S. Supreme Court case that held that restrictive covenants in real property deeds which prohibited the sale of property to non-Caucasians unconstitutionally violate the equal protection provision of the...

Texas v. Johnson (1989)

Texas v. Johnson (1989) is the U.S. Supreme Court case where the Court held that state laws which criminalize flag burning violated the First Amendment’s protection of freedom of speech. Find the full opinion here.

At the...

Third amendment

The third amendment to the constitution prohibits, in peacetime, the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the consent of the owner of the home. It states that "[n]o Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the...

Title IX

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryPart of the Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. Actions prohibited by Title IX...

Title VII

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA federal law (Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964) that prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, and genetic information.

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