civil rights

Section 1981

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA shorthand reference to the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which declares African Americans to be citizens entitled to a series of rights previously reserved to white men. Among the rights conferred by...

Section 504

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary

A section of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that protects the rights of individuals with disabilities who are involved in programs or activities that receive federal money. Settings in which Section...

separation of church and state

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary

A phrase most famously used by Supreme Court Justice Black in the case of Everson v. Board of Education. In discussing the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, Justice Black said that the...

serious health condition

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryUnder the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), eligible employees may take leave for their own serious health condition or to care for a family member with a serious health condition. A serious health...

Shelley v. Kraemer (1948)

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court declared so-called restrictive covenants in real property deeds that prohibited the sale of property to non-Caucasians to be unconstitutional and in violation...

Texas v. Johnson (1989)

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary

The U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court struck down laws prohibiting flag burning. The Court held that laws banning flag burning violated the First Amendment right to free speech.

Full text:...

Third amendment

The third amendment to the constitution prohibits, in peacetime, the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the consent of the owner of the home. It states that "[n]o Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the...

Title IX

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryPart of the Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. Actions prohibited by Title IX...

Title VII

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA federal law (Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964) that prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, and genetic information.

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United States v. Jones (2012)

The Supreme Court case which held that the placement and use of an electronic tracking device for 28 days on a suspect’s vehicle through an improperly executed warrant constituted a search under the Fourth Amendment. (Read opinion here)

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