class actions

Action

1. A judicial proceeding that involves either civil or criminal claims. An action is brought by one or more plaintiffs against one or more defendants.

2. In general, the process of doing something.

Actual Damages

Overview

In tort law, actual damages is a type of damages which refers to compensation awarded by a court in response to a loss suffered by a party.

The Supreme Court held in Birsdall v. Coolidge, 93 U.S. 64 (1876) that the phrases "compensatory...

Actual Notice

Someone receiving notice (being informed of a case that could affect their interest - see: Notice) in fact, as opposed to Constructive Notice (where although that person did not receive notice in fact, the law will consider them to have received notice...

Agency

Agency: An Overview

Agency law is concerned with any "principal"-"agent" relationship; a relationship in which one person has legal authority to act for another. Such relationships arise from explicit appointment, or by implication. The relationships...

Agent

A person with authority to act on behalf of another person.

See Principal, Fiduciary, and Fiduciary duty.

American Civil Liberties Union

Definition

A national organization that engages in litigation, legislative lobbying, and educational outreach in order to preserve and further individual rights and liberties that are guaranteed by the Constitution and laws of the United States....

Award

Definition

A final judgment or decision. The centerpiece of an award is usually a declaration that one party owes another a certain amount of money. Although the term often refers to the decisions of arbitrators and juries, it can also refer to the...

Case

A civil or criminal proceeding. May be called an action, suit, or controversy, depending on the jurisdiction and nature of the dispute.

See Controversy for an explanation of the "case or controversy" requirement in federal court.

Cause of Action

A set of predefined factual elements that allow for a legal remedy. The factual elements needed for a specific cause of action can come from a constitution, statute, judicial precedent, or administrative regulation.

See Claim and Civil procedure...

Champerty

A relationship arises when third parties unrelated to a litigation provide material support to litigants in exchange for consideration contingent on the outcome of the litigation. Often that relationship–between the third party and the...

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