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Carbon Offset

1) The idea that companies or individuals can neutralize the effect of their pollution by investing in pollution reduction efforts in other parts of the world. 2) A financial instrument whose purchase is aimed at the reduction of greenhouse gases. One carbon offset generally pays for the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases.    

Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

An omnibus energy policy law designed to increase energy efficiency and develop renewable energy. Signed by President George W. Bush, among other things, the law sets new fuel efficiency standards for cars and trucks (35 miles per gallon by 2020), encourages the development and production of advanced technology vehicles, encourages biofuel development, sets new efficiency standards for appliances and lighting, encourages alternate energy research and development, and mandates energy efficiency in public buildings.

Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009

A federal law that gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the power to regulate the contents of tobacco products, disclose the ingredients of these products, and prohibit marketing campaigns that target children. Under this law, the agency can lower the amount of nicotine allowed in tobacco products, ban candy flavorings that appeal to kids, and block labels such "low tar" and "light." The law also requires tobacco companies to use large, graphic warnings on their cartons.

Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009

A consumer protection law also called the Credit CARD Act. Among its provisions is a prohibition against retroactive rate increases, a requirement that terms be clearly spelled out, and an extension of time before late fees can be imposed. The law also increases protections for students and young people when it comes to new credit card offers.

Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992)

Definition

The Supreme Court case that reaffirmed the aspect of Roe v. Wade (1973) that prohibited states from disallowing abortion prior to viability. However, the Court overruled two aspects of the Roe decision: (1) the trimester distinction and (2) the use of strict scrutiny for judicial review of government regulation of abortions.

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