commercial activities

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA federal law that prohibits discrimination against people with physical or mental disabilities in employment, public services, and places of public accommodation, such as restaurants, hotels, and...


Amortization has different meanings for loan payments and taxes. Amortization for loans refers to separating the payments for the loan principal and interest into periodic payments to where the loan is paid off at a specified time....


A common bias that affects people's estimation of value based on examples that may be loosely related or not related at all to the situation at hand.

Angel Investor

An individual investor—often a high net worth individual—who provides capital for emerging growth companies, typically in exchange for either ownership equity or convertible debt. Angel investments often represent the round of financing between the...

Animal Testing

Under the Animal Welfare Act, research using animals is legal as long as it has a legitimate scientific purpose. Researchers are asked to consider non-animal alternatives, to avoid duplication, and to administer pain relief that does not interfere with...

Annual Percentage Rate

The annual cost of a loan, which includes both interest on the loan, and loan-related fees. This is calculated by multiplying the interest rate per payment period by the number of the number of such payment periods in a year.



A person who is entitled to benefit from an annuity.


Annuities are long-term contracts between individuals and insurance companies that individuals typically enter into as part of retirement planning. Individuals make payments to the insurance company, which the insurance company will in turn invest...

Anti-Greenmail Provision


Provision in a corporate charter that prevents the board of directors from making greenmail payments. Usually allows the buyback to occur with the approval of a majority of the non-controlling shareholders.

See alsoGreenmailArticle of...

Anticipatory Breach

In contract law, anticipatory breach occurs when a party repudiates prior to the date that the performance is due. Anticipatory breach is an excuse for non-performance by the non-breaching party. A party can retract its anticipatory breach provided...