commercial law

Carrying on Business

Carrying on business is to perform activities for a business organization such as a partnership or corporation with the purpose of making a profit. The concept is used in a few different ways such as:

A trustee may have a legal duty of...


A cartel is a group of independent corporations or other entities that join together to fix prices, rig bids, allocate markets, or conduct other similar illegal activities. Cartel conducts are mainly subject to criminal penalties under United States...

Certification Mark


A mark used in commerce by a person other than its owner to identify goods or services as being of a particular type.


Certification marks are protected and regulated as a type of trademark under the Lanham Act, but serve a...


Refers to the highways, waterways, and air traffic of the country. Compare with instrumentalities.


1. Broadly, the highest law of an entity. More specifically:

(a) In corporate law, the articles of incorporation.

(b) In public law, the instrument by which a municipality is incorporated (e.g., city charter). This type of charter...


The attrition of customers of a business or users of a service which is used to gauge the growth of a business or economy.


A trade term for Cost, Insurance and Freight, whereby the seller's quoted price includes insurance and all other costs up to a designated port of destination.

Clayton Antitrust Act

The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, codified at 15 U.S.C. 12-27, outlaws the following conduct:

price discrimination;conditioning sales on exclusive dealing;mergers and acquisitions when they may substantially reduce competition;serving on the board...


A collaborative agreement, usually secret, amongst rivals to prevent open competition through deceptive means in order to gain a market advantage. The parties may collude by agreeing to fix prices, limit or restrict supply, share insider information,...

Collusive Bidding

An agreement among two or more competitors to change the bids they otherwise would have offered absent the agreement. Under Section 1 of the Sherman Antitrust Act, collusive bidding is per se illegal.

See Antitrust Law for more information.