Judicial review is the idea, fundamental to the US system of government, that the actions of the executive and legislative branches of government are subject to review and possible invalidation by the judiciary. Judicial review allows the Supreme Court to take an active role in ensuring that the other branches of government abide by the
Treating a class of persons unequally in a manner that is malicious, hostile, or damaging.
Constitutional Avoidance is the principal that, if possible, the Supreme Court should avoid ruling on constitutional issues, and resolve the cases before them on other (usually statutory) grounds.
A calculation used to analyze a claim that a jury pool did not represent a fair cross-section of the community. Calculated by subtracting the percentage of a group in the jury pool from the percentage of that group in the general population.
Illustrative case law
See, e.g. Berghuis v. Smith, 130 S.Ct. 1382 (2010).
Abortion: an overview
In 1973, Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, changed the legal status of abortion by striking down a Texas law that criminalized abortion except as a means of saving the mother’s life. The case pitted individual privacy rights against States’ interest in regulating the life of the fetus.
At trial, impeachment is the process of attacking the accuracy of witnesses' testimony. For example, if a witness's testimony at trial contradicts her earlier sworn statements, one or both parties might bring up the sworn statement to impeach her testimony.