constitutional law

State Action Requirement

The state action requirement stems from the fact that the constitutional amendments which protect individual rights (especially the Bill of Rights and the 14th Amendment) are mostly phrased as prohibitions against government action. For example, the First Amendment states that “[c]ongress shall make no law” infringing upon the freedoms of speech and religion.  Because
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Absolute Disparity

Definition

A calculation used to analyze a claim that a jury pool did not represent a fair cross-section of the community. Calculated by subtracting the percentage of a group in the jury pool from the percentage of that group in the general population.

Illustrative case law

See, e.g. Berghuis v. Smith, 130 S.Ct. 1382 (2010).

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Abortion

Abortion: an overview

In 1973, Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, changed the legal status of abortion by striking down a Texas law that criminalized abortion except as a means of saving the mother’s life. The case pitted individual privacy rights against States’ interest in regulating the life of the fetus.

Impeachment

At trial, impeachment is the process of attacking the accuracy of witnesses' testimony. For example, if a witness's testimony at trial contradicts her earlier sworn statements, one or both parties might bring up the sworn statement to impeach her testimony.

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