courts and procedure

Temporary restraining order


Temporary restraining orders (TRO) are short-term pre-trial temporary injunctions. To obtain a TRO, a party must convince the judge that he or she will suffer immediate irreparable injury unless the order is issued. If the judge is convinced...

Territorial jurisdiction

Territorial jurisdiction is the court's power to bind the parties to the action. This law determines the scope of federal and state court power. State court territorial jurisdiction is determined by the Due Process Clause of the Constitution's...


Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryTo provide oral evidence under oath at a trial or at a deposition.

Definition provided by Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary.



Oral or written evidence given by a competent witness, under oath, at trial or in an affidavit or deposition.

Third-degree instruction


An instruction given by a court to a deadlocked jury to encourage it to continue deliberating until it reaches a verdict. Also called Allen charge, dynamite charge, nitroglycerine charge, and shotgun charge.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g...

third-party beneficiary


A person who is neither a promisor nor promisee in a contractual agreement, but stands to benefit from the contract’s performance. A third-party beneficiary may legally enforce that contract, but only after his or her rights have...


Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryWithin the time required by statute, court rules, or contract. For example, if a notice of appeal must be filed within 60 days of the entry of judgment, a notice filed on the 61st day would not be timely...


1. To stop the running of a time period, especially a time period set by a statute of limitations.

2. To bar or take away. Tolling a right of entry takes away the right to be present on the land.

3. Money paid in exchange for using...



The offense of betraying one’s own country by attempting to overthrow the government through waging war against the state or materially aiding its enemies. Also termed high treason; alta proditio.

According to the United States...


An adversary proceeding in court that weighs legal claims after a presentation of evidence.