criminal law and procedure


Defense to prosecution for a crime that a minor was incapable of criminal conduct based on his age.


Information is essentially communicated knowledge, or in other words a form of communication. It is a formal criminal charge that initiates the criminal proceedings in courts. It is simply a formal accusation, also known as a...


Infraction has multiple legal meanings. Generally it refers to violations or infringements; or breach of statutes, contracts, or obligations. However, the act itself is very minor and hence the resulting penalty is also very minor.


Initial appearance

When a defendant appears before a judge within a certain number of hours of an arrest in order for the the judge to determine if there is probable cause for the arrest.

Insurance fraud

insurance fraud: an overview

Insurance fraud refers to any duplicitous act performed with the intent to obtain an improper payment from an insurer. The pervasiveness of insurance fraud drives up costs for all consumers and costs the insurance industry...

international crimes

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The following is a non-exhaustive list of crimes under international criminal law

prohibition on the use of force;the law of genocide;principle of racial non-discrimination;crimes against humanity;prohibiting trade in...

International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court: a backgrounder

The International Criminal Court (ICC), was established as the first permanent independent international criminal court with jurisdiction over persons for the most serious crimes of concern to the...

International criminal tribunals

International criminal tribunals are temporary (ad hoc) or permanent courts convened for the purpose of deciding cases arising under international criminal law. Examples of international criminal tribunals include:

Nuremberg Military Tribunals,...


Intoxication is a defense available to defendants in criminal law cases. A defendant who raises this defense claims that he should not be held liable for a crime because his compromised mental state prevented him from...

Investigatory stops

A brief stop that is not intrusive. In order to conduct such a stop, a police officer must have reasonable suspicion that a crime been committed. This reasonable suspicion must be based on specific and articulable facts.